Dough Maturation and Development

  • Raymond Calvel


We have already seen that maturation affects the physical properties of dough. Barring some type of unforeseen problem, the degree of cohesiveness increases and dough extensibility decreases while dough maturation progresses. When forming or molding of the unbaked loaves is carried out (after dough division and the rest period), dough maturation should arrive at a certain equilibrium between its opposing qualities of extensibility and cohesiveness. This equilibrium includes
  • a degree of cohesiveness that allows the dough pieces or pâtons to rise symmetrically, to “proof” to a rounded form without tearing, and to reach an appropriate volume during baking. The loaves must have good resistance to deformation in order to undergo scarification (razor cutting of the crust) and oven loading without significant damage.

  • a degree of extensibility that allows the pâtons to be stretched or lengthened without problems and without tearing during molding or forming. Extensibility also gives good proofing properties during final fermentation and provides good gas retention during and after oven loading. This ability to retain fermentation gases allows the loaves to reach a good state of development and results in well-raised, light, and voluminous loaves after baking (Figure 6-1).


Residual Sugar Loaf Volume Crumb Structure Freeze Dough French Bread 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    This is because a longer fermentation uses more of the excess sugar.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown ‘n Serve“ or ”parbaked“ products have recently shown a renewal in popularity in the United States, especially for specialty sourdough and hearth rolls. While these may be shipped in frozen form, they generally are shelved and sold at ambient temperature and are surface sprayed with a sorbate mold inhibitor which is similar in taste to the natural sorbates in some sourdoughs. Very recent developments in vacuum cooling of specially processed parbaked products in the United Kingdom (the Milton-Keynes process) are said to have extended the use of parbaking procedures to all types of bakery products, and appear to have eliminated the problem of product shrinkage while reducing or negating the need for frozen transport and storage. Whether this process will be successful in other English-speaking countries remains to be seen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Calvel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations