Organic Acids

  • Raymond Calvel


There is certainly a difference between bread from a natural levain or starter sponge and that produced from a levain de pâte or prefermented dough.1 The first method produces relatively dense bread with a predominately acetic acidity, while bread made from a levain de pâte is better developed, is higher in volume, and has an acidity that is still distinctly present but much more discreet and complex.


Isobutyric Acid Taste Panel Isovaleric Acid Bread Crumb Bean Flour 
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  1. 1.
    As noted previously in Chapter 4, baker’s yeast has a considerable role in dough leavening effect with the levain de pâte method.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The flour included a standard percentage of bean flour, as commonly done in France.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    This is more rarely a problem for professional bakers in North America. However, it is common for millers to add soybean flour to high-protein wheat flour intended for the industrial production of white pan bread, and soybean flour may often be found in “all-purpose” flour for home baking. The baker must bear in mind the final product when discussing flour specifications with the miller or distributor. Bleaching and oxidizing additives are much more real concerns in English-speaking countries.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Calvel

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