• Raymond Calvel


Mixing is the basic operation in dough production. Its primary role is to combine the individual ingredients that make up the dough and then to ensure the input of a sufficient amount of mechanical work (energy) to produce a smooth, cohesive, and homogeneous dough. (This is a dough that pulls away from the walls of the mixing bowl and is easily detached from the hands.)


Wheat Flour Carotenoid Pigment Bread Dough Gluten Network Bean Flour 
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  1. 1.
    Wayne Gisslin, in Professional Baking. John Wiley & Sons, 1985, p. 38, describes an extremely simple method for dough temperature calculation that is precise enough for retail and serious amateur use. It may be reduced to a formula that includes (a) needed dough temperature, (b) flour temperature, (c) room temperature, and (d) machine friction to arrive at a figure for (e) water temperature. This simplified formula uses a figure of 20°F (11°C) as an average friction factor. The formula can be stated as: (ax3)—(b+c+d)=e More precise calculation is needed for larger retail and industrial use, but this requires determination of a machine friction factor for each individual mixer used. Mr. Gisslin summarizes the procedures and information needed to calculate the machine friction factor on page 329 of the above text. This is also discussed in greater depth in the Applied Baking Technology correspondence course from the American Institute of Baking, 1213 Bakers Way, Manhattan, KS 66502.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fava (faba) bean flour is not encountered as a flour ingredient in North America, but the effects of flour bleaching and other oxidants such as soy flour may be equally disastrous.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Problems of hypodiastaticity can be dealt with effectively by the addition of a very small of malt powder or malt syrup. See the references to cereal amylases and malt products in Chapter 2.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Planetary mixers do not develop the gluten network to the same extent as other mixer types. All bread doughs made with planetary mixers might benefit from a slightly prolonged bulk fermentation.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mr. Guilbot, who was Director of Research for the INRA (France’s equivalent of the U.S. Department of Agriculture), gave his opinion on Mr. Draperon’s work in the “Technical Yearbooks of the INRA: 1972.”Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    As happened 2 years out of 3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

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  • Raymond Calvel

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