Yeast-Raised Sweet Doughs

  • Raymond Calvel


The story of the origin of the croissant is one that certainly bears repeating. It appears to have first been developed in Vienna, Austria, in 1683. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was at war with the Turkish Empire, the Turkish army had laid siege to Vienna, and the siege had been dragging on for some time. To bring it to a close, the Turkish soldiers began to dig a tunnel beneath the fortifications with the intention of taking the city’s defenders from the rear. What the Turks did not realize is that they were digging toward the basement of a bakery, and that the noise of their digging would alarm the bakers who were working there.1 The bakers sounded the alarm, and the Turks were the ones who were surprised, resulting in the defeat of their army.


Lamination Process Meat Mixture Flour Weight Butter Content Dough Piece 
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  1. 1.
    In much of Europe the mixing and baking areas were traditionally located below ground, just as they were in the United States until the early part of the 20th century.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Croissants and other free-standing pieces are baked on sheet pans lined with nonstick silicone-coated paper.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Egg wash is normally made from whole egg yolks beaten with salt, or less frequently, egg yolks, water, and salt.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Since this book was written European food laws have changed. The direct use of raw milk in food products is almost universally prohibited by law—including such use in North America—in both wholesale and retail baking as well as many other types of food production. The recently appearing danger of serious food poisoning at the consumer level from contamination of finished foods by Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli, and a number of other potentially deadly organisms is simply too serious to ignore. Improperly handled milk products, contaminated ground meats, and unsanitary shell eggs are the most common causes of this problem, and all can have serious implications for both the craft and home baker.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    It is not Professor Calvel’s intention that bakers prepare a batch of brioche dough which is to be used as the prefermented dough especially for this recipe. This is a method for either using up some extra dough, or using an insufficient amount of dough on hand as a base for a greater amount of dough required for an unexpected order. If a preferment is to be made expressly for a brioche recipe, the sponge and dough recipe (Exhibit 13–6) is much simpler choice yielding equal results. Also note that the use of brioche dough as a perferment may be done occasionally but not systematically and perpetually. This would lead to off flavors.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    The molds or tins used for brioches are brushed with melted butter before the dough is placed into them.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    For an extra-glossy finish, large brioches and other fancy pieces may be coated once with egg wash 15 minutes before baking, and a second time immediately prior to baking.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pans such as those commonly used for pound cake.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Much as with American cinnamon rolls.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lower grinding and mixing temperatures help to produce the desired firm texture in the finished sausage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Calvel

There are no affiliations available

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