Tanzanian Developments Since 1992
  • Gun Eriksson Skoog


The transition of the formal Tanzanian economic and political system into a more democratic and market-oriented order has proceeded throughout the 1990s. In 1995, the first multi-party election was held and Benjamin Mkapa, generally perceived to be committed to reform, was elected president. By and large, macro-economic performance of the system in transition has continued to improve, but the economic situation is still fragile, effective structural change moderate and many reforms remain to be implemented.1 Besides, any formal change takes place within the context of the informal rules and relationships of the economy of affection.2


Discretionary Power Informal Rule Soft Budget Constraint Fiscal Authority Fiscal Discipline 
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  1. 1.
    See, for instance, Bigsten and Danielson (forthcoming), Danielson and Mjema (1999), Chapter 2, and (2000), Chapter 3, on the accomplishments and challenges of Tanzanian reform.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chabal and Daloz (1999) offer a recent contribution on the role of informal rules and relationships in Sub-Saharan African societies, in particular on the consequences for the state.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bigsten and Danielson (forthcoming), p. 118.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kühnel (2000a).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bigsten and Danielson (forthcoming), pp. 98–99; United Republic of Tanzania (1996), p. 7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bigsten and Danielson (forthcoming), 121–126; Price Waterhouse-Coopers (1999). See Danielson andGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eriksson Skoog (forthcoming), for a discussion of the characteristics of the Tanzanian state in the 1990s.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bigsten and Danielson (forthcoming), pp. 85 and 100; International Monetary Fund (1996), p. 7. Danielson and Eriksson Skoog (forthcoming) survey preliminary indications of the soft budget constraint in the 1990s.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    In 1995, 41 parastatals were reported to have made losses of totally 24 billion TSh, equivalent to around 4Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    per cent of the official GDP. (World Bank, 1995, p. 10.)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kühnel (2000b).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bigsten and Danielson (forthcoming), pp. 23 and 123–125.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fjeldstad (1999).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Danielson and Mjema (1999).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Catterson and Lindahl (1999).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gun Eriksson Skoog
    • 1
  1. 1.Stockholm School of Economics — EFI The Economic Research InstituteSweden

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