Immunology pp 27-42 | Cite as

The Functional Heterogeneity of Macrophages

  • William S. Walker
  • Raymond B. Hester


Macrophages are morphologically and functionally diverse. As a group, they comprise cells that play vital roles in homeostasis (Berlin and Berk, 1975) and in host defense reactions against foreign materials, microbial agents (Nelson, 1969; Nathan et al., 1980), and, possibly, neoplasms (Adams and Snyderman, 1979). These activities, as well as their accessory cell functions in immune responses differ widely from one anatomical site to another and, in many cases, within the same population.


Alveolar Macrophage Peritoneal Macrophage Mononuclear Phagocyte Complement Receptor Accessory Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, D. O., and Snyderman, R., 1979, Do macrophages destroy nascent tumors?, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62:1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bainton, D. F., 1980, Changes in peroxidase distribution within organelles of blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages after surface adherence in vitro and in vivo, in: Mononuclear Phagocytes— Functional Aspects, Part I (R. van Furth, ed.), pp. 61–86, Nijhoff, The Hague.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balner, H., 1963, Identification of peritoneal macrophages in mouse radiation chimers, Transplantation 1:217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bar-Eli, M., Territo, M. C., and Cline, M. S., 1980, The progeny of a single progenitor cell can develop characteristics of either a tissue or an alveolar macrophage, Blood 57:95.Google Scholar
  5. Beller, D. I., and Unanue, E. R., 1981, Regulation of macrophage populations: Synthesis and expression of Ia antigen by peritoneal exudate macrophages is a transient event, J. Immunol. 126:263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berlin, N. I., and Berk, P. D., 1975, The biological life of the red cell, in: The Red Blood Cell (D. MacSurgenor, ed.), pp. 957–1019, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Berlin, R. D., Oliver, J. M., and Walter, R. J., 1978, Surface functions in mitosis. I. Phagocytosis, pinocytosis and mobility of surface bound Con A, Cell 15:327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianco, C., Griffin, F. M., and Silverstein, S. C., 1975, Studies of the macrophage complement receptor: Alteration of receptor function upon macrophage activation, J. Exp. Med. 141:1278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunstetter, M. A., Hardie, J. A., and Schiff, R., 1971, The origin of pulmonary alveolar macrophages, Arch. Intern. Med. 127:1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bursuker, I., and Goldman, R., 1979, Derivation of resident and inflammatory macrophages from precursor cells differing in 5′-nucleotidase activity, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 26:205.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell, M. W., Sholley, M. M., and Miller, G. A., 1980, Macrophage heterogeneity in tumor resistance: Cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of Corynebacterium parvum-activated and proteose peptone-elicited rat macrophages against Moloney sarcoma tumor cells, Cell. Immunol. 50:153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carr, I., 1973, The Macrophage, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Cohn, Z., 1968, The structure and function of monocytes and macrophages, Adv. Immunol. 9:163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cole, F. S., Matthews, W. J., Marino, J. T., Gash, D. J., and Colten, H. R., 1980, Control of complement synthesis and secretion in bronchoalveolar and peritoneal macrophages, J. Immunol. 125:1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, F. M., and Auclair, L. K., 1980, Mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs of unstimulated parabiotic rats, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 27:429.Google Scholar
  16. Cowing, C., Schwartz, B. D., and Dickler, H. B., 1978, Macrophage Ia antigens: Macrophage subpopulations differ in their expression of Ia antigens, J. Immunol. 120:378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Crofton, R. W., Diesselhoffden Dulk, M. M. C., and van Furth, R., 1978, The origin, kinetics and characteristics of the Kupffer cells in the normal steady state, J. Exp. Med. 148:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daems, W. T., and Brederoo, P., 1973, Electron microscopical studies on the structure, phagocytic properties and peroxidatic activity of resident and exudate peritoneal macrophages, Z. Zellforsch, Mikrosk, Anat. 144:247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daems, W. T., and Van der Rhee, H. J., 1980, Peroxidase and catalase in monocytes, macrophages, epithelioid cells and giant cells of the rat, in: Mononuclear Phagocytes—Functional Aspects, Part I (R. van Furth, ed.), pp. 43–60, Nijhoff, The Hague.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daems, W. Th., Koerten, H. K., and Soranzo, M. R., 1976, On the differences between monocytederived and tissue macrophages, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 73:PT-A2740.Google Scholar
  21. Dohlman, J. G., and Goetzl, E. J., 1978, Unique determinants of alveolar macrophage spontaneous and chemokinetically stimulated migration, Cell. Immunol. 39:36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fishman, M., and Weinberg, D. S., 1979, Functional heterogeneity among peritoneal macrophages: Enzyme content of macrophage subpopulations, Cell. Immunol. 45:437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gale, R. P., Sparkes, R. S., and Golde, D. W., 1978, Bone marrow origin of hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) in humans, Science 201:937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gandour, D. M., and Walker, W. S., 1981, Cell cycle-dependent expression of the IgG2a isotypespecific Fc-receptor and IgG2a antibody-dependent phagocytosis by the P388D1 macrophage cell line, Proc. 18th Annu. Natl. Meet. Reticuloendothelial Soc., Milwaukee, Abstract 96.Google Scholar
  25. Gandour, D. M., and Walker, W. S., 1983, Macrophage cell cycling: Influence on Fc receptors and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, J. Immunol. 130:1108–1112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Garvey, J. S., and Campbell, D. H., 1957, Studies of the retention and properties of 535 labeled antigen in livers of immunized rabbits, J. Immunol. 76:36.Google Scholar
  27. Germain, R. N., Pierres, M., and Benacerraf, B., 1980, The role of macrophages in determining the balance of regulatory T-cells specific for L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10 (GAT), in: Macrophage Regulation of Immunity (E. R. Unanue and A. S. Rosenthal, eds.), pp. 15–33, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Godleski, J. J., and Brain, J. D., 1972, The origin of alveolar macrophages in mouse radiation chimers, J. Exp. Med. 136:630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gorczynski, R. M., 1976, Control of the immune response: Role of macrophages in regulation of antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses, Scand. J. Immunol. 5:1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gorczynski, R. M., MacRae, S., and Jennings, J. J., 1979, A novel role for macrophage: Antigen discrimination of distinct carbohydrate bonds, Cell. Immunol. 45:276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gorenberg, D. J., and Daniele, R. P., 1978, The alveolar macrophages: Its capacity to act as an accessory cell in mitogen-stimulated proliferation of guinea pig lymphocytes, Cell. Immunol. 36:115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goud, T. J., Shotte, C., and van Furth, R., 1975, Identification and characterization of the monblast in mononuclear phagocyte colonies grown in vitro, J. Exp. Med. 142:1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hearst, J. E., Warr, G. A., and Jakab, G. J., 1980, Characterization of murine lung and peritoneal macrophages, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 27:443.Google Scholar
  34. Henry, C., Goodman, J. R., Chan, E., Kimura, J., Lucas, A., and Wofsy, L., 1979, Macrophage Ia antigens: Electron microscopic visualization and relevance in an in vitro anti-hapten response, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 26:787.Google Scholar
  35. Hogg, N., and Slusarenko, M., 1981, Monoclonal antibodies to subsets of human blood monocytes, in: Heterogeneity of Mononuclear Phagocytes (O. Forster and M. Landy, eds.), pp. 60–65, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Holt, P. G., 1979, Studies on the mechanism of inhibition of T-cell proliferation, Immunology 37:437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Holt, P. G., 1980, Interspecies differences in activity in proliferating lymphocyte cultures, Cell. Immunol. 50:210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holt, P. G., and Batty, J. E., 1980, Comparative studies on the antigen presentation activity of guinea pig and rat alveolar macrophages, Immunology 36:257.Google Scholar
  39. Hopper, K. E., Wood, P. R., and Nelson, D. S., 1979, Macrophage heterogeneity, Vox Sang. 36:257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Humphrey, J. H., and Grennan, D., 1981, Different macrophage populations distinguished by means of fluorescent polysaccharides: Recognition and properties of marginal-zone macrophages, Eur. J. Immunol. 121:221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hunninghake, G. W., and Fauci, A. S., 1976, Immunological reactivity of the lung: A guinea pig model for the study of pulmonary mononuclear cell populations, Cell. Immunol. 26:89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Inchley, C. J., and Howard, J. G., 1969, The immunogenicity of phagocytosed T4 bacteriophage: Cell replacement studies with splenectomized and irradiated mice, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 5:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson, K. J., Ward, P. A., Striker, G., and Kunkel, R., 1980, A study of the origin of pulmonary macrophages using the Chediak—Higashi marker, Am. J. Pathol. 101:365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaplan, G., 1977, Differences in the mode of phagocytosis with Fc and C3 receptors in macrophages, Scand. J. Immunol. 6:797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kavai, M., Laczko, J., and Csaba, B., 1979, Functional heterogeneity of macrophages, Immunology 36:729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kavet, R. I., and Brain, J. D., 1977, Phagocytosis: Quantification of rates and intracellular heterogeneity, J. Appl. Physiol. 42:432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kay, M. M. B., 1981, Isolation of the phagocytosis-inducing IgG-binding antigen on senescent somatic cells, Nature (London) 289:491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee, K.-C., 1980, On the origin and mode of action of functionally distinct macrophage subpopulations, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 30:39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lee, K.-C., and Berry, D., 1977, Functional heterogeneity in macrophages activated by Corynebacterium parvum: Characterization of subpopulations with different activities in promoting immune responses and suppressing tumor cell growth, J. Immunol. 118:1530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee, K.-C., and Wong, M., 1979, Functional heterogeneity of culture-grown bone marrow derived macrophages: Antigen presenting function, J. Immunol. 125:86.Google Scholar
  51. Lee, K.-C., Wilkinson, A., and Wong, M., 1979, Antigen-specific murine T-cell proliferation: Role of macrophage surface Ia and factors, Cell. Immunol. 48:79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee, K.-C., Wong, M., and McIntyre, D., 1981, Characterization of macrophage subpopulations responsive to activation by endotoxin and by lymphokines, J. Immunol. 126:2474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lohmann-Matthes, M. L., Domzig, W., and Taskov, H., 1979, Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against tumor cells: Cultivated bone-marrow-derived macrophage kill tumor cells, Eur. J. Immunol. 9:261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCarthy, K. F., and MacVittie, T. J., 1978, Velocity sedimentation studies on monocyte-macrophage colony forming cells from marrow, spleen, blood and peritoneal exudate, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 24:263.Google Scholar
  55. Melewicz, F. M., and Spiegelberg, H. L., 1980, Fc-receptors for IgE on a subpopulation of human peripheral blood monocytes, J. Immunol. 125:1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Meltzer, M. S., Nacy, C. A., and Leonard, E. J., 1981, Genetic analysis of macrophage effector function: Development of nonspecific tumoricidal and microbicidal activities during leukocyte activation, in: Heterogeneity of Mononuclear Phagocytes (O. Forster and M. Landy, eds.), pp. 384–389, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Miller, G. A., Campbell, M. V., and Hudson, J. L., 1980, Separation of rat peritoneal macrophages into functionally distinct subclasses by centrifugal elutriation, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 27:167.Google Scholar
  58. Morahan, P. S., and Miller, G. A., 1981, Heterogeneity of Corynebacterium parvum-elicited macrophages, in: Heterogeneity of Mononuclear Phagocytes (O. Forster and M. Landy, eds.), pp. 161–164, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Mosier, D. E., and Coppleson, E., 1968, A three-cell interaction required for the induction of the primary immune response in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61:542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mottram, P. L., and Miller, J. F. A. P., 1980, Delayed-type hypersensitivity induced by antigenpulsed, bone marrow-derived macrophages, Eur. J. Immunol. 10:165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mottram, P. L., Potter, T. A., McKenzie, I. F. C., and Miller, J. F. A. P., 1981, Serological analysis of macrophage surface alloantigens, Cell. Immunol. 59:151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nacy, C. A., Leonard, E. J., and Meltzer, M. S., 1981, Macrophages in resistance to rickettsial infections: Characterization of lymphokines that induce rickettsiacidal activity in macrophages, J. Immunol. 126:204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Nadler, P. I., Klingenstein, R. J., Richman, L. K., and Ahmann, G. B., 1980, The murine Kupffer cell: Accessory cell function in in vitro primary antibody responses, mitogen-induced proliferation, and stimulation of mixed lymphocytic responses, J. Immunol. 125:2521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Nathan, C. F., Murray, H. W., and Cohn, Z. A., 1980, The macrophage is an effector cell, N. Engl. J. Med. 303:622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nelson, D. S., 1969, Macrophages and Immunity, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  66. Niederhuber, J. E., 1978, The role of I-region gene products in macrophage—T lymphocyte interaction, Immunol. Rev. 40:28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Norman, S. J., and Weiner, R., 1981, Isolation of two subsets of human peripheral blood monocytes differing in tumor cytotoxicity, in: Heterogeneity of Mononuclear Phagocytes (O. Forster and M. Landy, eds.), pp. 496–500, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Norris, D. A., Morris, R. M., Sanderson, R. J., and Kohler, P. F., 1979, Isolation of functional subsets of human peripheral blood monocytes, J. Immunol. 123:166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Oi, V. T., Jones, P. P., Goding, J. W., Herzenberg, L. A., and Herzenberg, L. A., 1978, Properties of monoclonal antibodies to mouse Ig allotypes, H-2, and Ia antigens, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 81:115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Oren, R. A., Farnham, A. E., Saito, K., Milofsky, E., and Karnovsky, M. L., 1963, Metabolic patterns in three types of phagocytosing cells, J. Cell Biol. 17:487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parwaresch, M. R., Radzum, H. J., and Dommes, M., 1981, The homogeneity and monocytic origin of human peritoneal macrophages evidenced by comparison of esterase polymorphism, Am. J. Pathol. 102:209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pels, E., DeGroot, J. W., Mullink, R., van Unnik, J. A. M., and Den Otter, W., 1980, Identification of two different types of mouse peritoneal exudate cells with ring-shaped nuclei, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 27:367.Google Scholar
  73. Pelus, L. M., Broxmeyer, H. E., DeSousa, M., and Moore, M. A. S., 1981, Heterogeneity among resident murine peritoneal macrophages: Separation and functional characterization of monocytoid cells producing granulcoyte—macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and responding to regulation by lactoferrin, J. Immunol. 126:1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pennline, K. J., and Herscowitz, H. B., 1981, Dual role for alveolar macrophages in humoral and cellmediated immune responses: Evidence for suppressor and enhancing factors, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 30:205.Google Scholar
  75. Pinkett, M. O., Cowdrey, C. R., and Nowell, P. C., 1966, Mixed hematopoietic and pulmonary origin of alveolar macrophages as demonstrated by chromosome markers, Am. J. Pathol. 48:859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rabellino, E. M., Ross, G. D., and Polley, M. J., 1978, Membrane receptors for mouse leukocytes: Two types of complement receptors for different regions of C3, J. Immunol. 120:879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Raff, H. V., Picker, L. J., and Stobo, J. D., 1980, Macrophage heterogeneity in man: A subpopulation of HLA-Dr-bearing macrophages required for antigen-induced T-cell activation also contains stimulators for autologous-reactive T-cells, J. Exp. Med. 152:581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reynolds, H. Y., Atkinson, J. P., Newball, H. H., and Frank, M. M., 1975, Receptors for immunoglobulins and complement on human alveolar macrophage, J. Immunol. 114:1813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rhodes, J., 1975, Macrophage heterogeneity in receptor activity: The activation of macrophage Fcreceptor function in vivo and in vitro, J. Immunol. 114:976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rice, S., and Fishman, M., 1974, Functional and morphological heterogeneity among rabbit peritoneal macrophages, Cell. Immunol. 11:130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rogoff, T. M., and Lipsky, P. E., 1980, Antigen presentation by isolated guinea pig Kupffer cells, J. Immunol. 124:1740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ross, G., 1980, Analysis of different types of leukocyte membrane complement receptors and their interaction with the complement system, J. Immunol. Methods 37:197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Roubin, R., and Zolla-Pazner, S., 1979, Markers of macrophage heterogeneity: Studies of macrophages from various organs of normal mice, Eur. J. Immunol. 9:972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roubin, R., Kennard, J., Foley, D., and Zolla-Pazner, S., 1981, Markers of macrophage heterogeneity: Altered frequency of macrophage subpopulations after various pathologic stimuli, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 29:423.Google Scholar
  85. Rumpold, H., Swetly, P., Boltz, G., and Forster, O., 1981, Monoclonal antibodies against macrophage-associated antigens, in: Heterogeneity of Mononuclear Phagocytes (O. Forster and M. Landy, eds.), pp. 47–51, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Ryning, F. W., Krahenbuhl, J. L., and Remington, J. S., 1981, Comparison of cytotoxic and microbicidal function of bronchoalveolar and peritoneal macrophages, Immunology 42:513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Scher, M. G., Beller, D. I., and Unanue, E. R., 1980, Demonstration of a soluble factor that induces exudates rich in Ia-positive macrophage, J. Exp. Med. 152:1684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schroff, G., Newmann, C., and Sorg, C., 1981, Transglutaminase as a marker for subsets of murine macrophages, Eur. J. Immunol. 11:637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schwartz, R. H., Dickler, H. B., Sachs, D. H., and Schwartz, B. D., 1976, Studies on Ia antigens on immune peritoneal macrophages, Scand. J. Immunol. 5:731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schwartz, R. H., Yano, A., and Paul, W. E., 1978, Interaction between antigen-presenting cells and primed T-lymphocytes, Immunol. Rev. 40:152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Seljelid, R., 1980, Properties of Kupffer cells, in: Mononuclear Phagocytes—Functional Aspects, Part I (R. van Furth, ed.), pp. 157–199, Nijhoff, The Hague.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shands, J. W., and Axelrod, B. J., 1977, Mouse peritoneal macrophages: Tritiated thymidine labeling and cell kinetics, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 21:69.Google Scholar
  93. Simon, L. M., Robin, E. D., Phillips, J. R., Acevedo, J., Axline, S. G., and Theodore, T., 1977, Enzymatic basis of bioenergetic differences of alveolar versus peritoneal macrophages and enzyme regulation by molecular O2, J. Clin. Invest. 59:443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stern, A. C., Erb, P., and Gisler, R. H., 1979, Ia-bearing bone-marrow cultured macrophages induce antigen-specific helper T-cells for antibody synthesis, J. Immunol. 123:612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Stewart, C. C., 1980, Formation of colonies by mononuclear phagocytes outside the bone marrow, in: Mononuclear Phagocytes—Functional Aspects, Part I (R. van Furth, ed.), pp. 377–413, Nijhoff, The Hague.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Takahashi, H., Enzan, H., and Ohkita, T., 1973, Studies on cell kinetics of peritoneal macrophages, Recent Adv. RES Res. 11:85.Google Scholar
  97. Thomas, E. D., Ramberg, R. E., Sale, G. E., Sparkes, R. S., and Golde, D. W., 1976, Direct evidence for a bone marrow origin of the alveolar macrophage in man, Science 192:1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tice, D. G., Golberg, J., and Nelson, D. A., 1981, Functional properties of isopycnic fractions of human peripheral blood monocytes, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 29:459.Google Scholar
  99. Triger, D. R., Alp, M. H., and Wright, R., 1972, Bacterial and dietary antibodies in liver disease, Lancet 1:60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tzehoval, E., DeBaetselier, P., Feldman, M., and Segal, S., 1981, The peritoneal antigen-presenting macrophage: Control and immunogenic properties of distinct subpopulations, Eur. J. Immunol. 11:323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Unanue, E. R., and Beller, D. I., 1981, Control of Ia expression by macrophages, in: Heterogeneity of Mononuclear Phagocytes (O. Forster and M. Landy, eds.), pp. 214–217, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. van der Meer, J. W. M., Beelen, R. H. J., Fluitsma, D. M., and van Furth, R., 1979, Ultrastructure of mononuclear phagocytes developing in liquid bone marrow cultures: A study on peroxidatic activity, J. Exp. Med. 149:17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. van Furth, R. (ed.), 1970, The origin and turnover of promonocytes, monocytes and macrophages in normal mice, in: Mononuclear Phagocytes, pp. 151–165, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  104. van Furth, R. (ed.), 1980, Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system—Nomenclature in terms of sites and conditions, in: Mononuclear Phagocytes—Functional Aspects, pp. 1–30, Nijhoff, The Hague.Google Scholar
  105. van Furth, R., Diesselhoffden Dulk, M. M. C., Raeburn, J. A., van Zwet, T. L., Crofton, R., and van Oudalblas, A. B., 1980, Characteristics, origin and kinetics of human and murine mononuclear phagocytes, in: Mononuclear Phagocytes—Functional Aspects, Part I (R. van Furth, ed.), pp. 279–298, Nijhoff, The Hague.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. van Oudalblas, A. B., van der Linden-Schrever, B., and van Furth, R., 1981, Origin and kinetics of pulmonary macrophages during an inflammatory reaction induced by intravenous administration of heat-killed bacillus Calmette-Guerin, J. Exp. Med. 154:235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Virolainen, M., 1968, Hematopoietic origin of macrophages as studied by chromosome markers in mice, J. Exp. Med. 127:943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Volkman, A., 1976a, Disparity in origin of mononuclear phagocyte populations, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 19:249.Google Scholar
  109. Volkman, A., 1976b, Monocyte kinetics and their changes in infection, in: Immunobiology of the Macrophage (D. S. Nelson, ed.), pp. 291–322, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Volkman, A., Chang, N. C., Strausbauch, P. H., and Morahan, P. S., 1981, Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations laboratory investigation 49:291–298.Google Scholar
  111. Walker, W. S., 1971, Macrophage functional heterogeneity in the in vitro-induced immune response, Nature New Biol. 229:211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Walker, W. S., 1974, Functional heterogeneity of macrophages: Subclasses of peritoneal macrophages with different antigen binding activities and immune complex receptors, Immunology 26:1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Walker, W. S., 1976a, Macrophage functional heterogeneity, in: Immunobiology of the Macrophage (D. S. Nelson, ed.), pp. 91–110, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Walker, W. S., 1976b, Macrophage functional heterogeneity in the induction and expression of acquired immunity, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 20:57.Google Scholar
  115. Walker, W. S., and Yen, S.-E., 1982, Complement receptor phenotypes of culture-derived murine macrophages, J. Cell. Physiol. 110:227–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Walker, W. S., Hester, R. B., Gandour, D. M., and Stewart, C. C., 1981, Evidence of a distinct progenitor for the Ia-bearing murine bone-marrow-derived mononuclear phagocyte, in: Heterogeneity of Mononuclear Phagocytes (O. Forster and M. Landy, eds.), pp. 229–232, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  117. Weinberg, D. S., and Unanue, E. R., 1981, Antigen-presenting function of alveolar macrophages: Uptake and presentation of Listeria monocytogenes, J. Immunol. 126:794.Google Scholar
  118. Weinberg, D. S., Fishman, M., and Veit, B. C., 1978, Functional heterogeneity among peritoneal macrophages: Effector cell activity of macrophages against syngenic and xenogeneic tumor cells, Cell. Immunol. 38:94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Werdelin, O., Braendstrup, O., and Pederson, E., 1974, Macrophage—lymphocyte clusters in the immune response to soluble protein antigen in vitro. I. Roles of lymphocytes and macrophages in cluster formation, J. Exp. Med. 140:1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Whitcomb, M. E., 1978, Identification of a receptor for complement on the guinea pig alveolar macrophage membrane, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 118:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. White, R., Lin, H.-S., and Kun, C., 1977, Elastase secretion by peritoneal exudative and alveolar macrophages, J. Exp. Med. 146:802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Widmann, J. J., and Fahimi, H. D., 1975, Proliferation of mononuclear phagocytes (Kupffer cells) and endothelial cells in regenerating liver, Am. J. Pathol. 80:349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Widmann, J. J., Cotran, R. S., and Fahimi, H. D., 1972, Mononuclear phagocytes (Kupffer cells) and endothelial cells: Identification of two functional cell types in rat liver sinusoids by endogenous peroxidase activity, J. Cell Biol. 52:159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wing, E. J., Gardner, I. D., Ryning, F. W., and Remington, J. S., 1977, Dissociation of effector junctions in populations of activated macrophages, Nature (London) 268:642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yamashita, V., and Shevach, E. M., 1977, The expression of Ia antigen on immunocompetent cells in the guinea pig: Ia antigens on macrophages, J. Immunol. 119:1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Yasaka, T., Mantich, N. M., Boxer, L. A., and Baehner, R. L., 1981, Functions of human monocyte and lymphocyte subsets obtained by countercurrent centrifugal elutriation: Differing functional capacities of human monocyte subsets, J. Immunol. 127:1515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zembala, M., and Asherson, G. L., 1970, The rapid purification of peritoneal exudate macrophages by Ficoll (polysucrose) density gradient centrifugation, Immunology 19:677.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • William S. Walker
    • 1
  • Raymond B. Hester
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of ImmunologySt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations