Quantification of Visual Capability

  • Arthur P. Ginsburg
  • William R. Hendee


The interpretation of visual images is characterized by ambiguity. The ability of an individual to extract information from an image is difficult to quantify. One approach to this challenge has been to define the visual capability of an individual in terms of metrics derived from an understanding of how individuals perceive spatial information.


Spatial Frequency Contrast Sensitivity Human Visual System Modulation Transfer Function High Spatial Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.1
    Schade O.H. Optical and photoelectric analog of the eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1956; 46: 721–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 3.2
    Campbell F.W. The transmission of spatial information throughout the visual system. In: Schmitt F.O., Warden F.G., eds. The Neurosciences Third Study Program. Cambridge: MIT; 1974: 90–103.Google Scholar
  3. 3.3
    McNelis J.F., Guth S.K. Visual performance: Further data on complex test objects. Ilium. Eng. 1969; 64: 99–102.Google Scholar
  4. 3.4
    Ginsburg A.P. Sine-wave gratings are more visually sensitive than disks or letters. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1984; 1 (12): 1301.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 3.5
    Proenza L., Enoch J., Jampolsky A., eds. Clinical Applications of Visual Psycho-physics. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1981: 70–106.Google Scholar
  6. 3.6
    Ginsburg A.P., Coggins J. Texture analysis based on filtering properties of the human visual system. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Cybern Soc. 1981; 112–117.Google Scholar
  7. 3.7
    Howland B., Ginsburg A.P., Campbell F. High-pass spatial frequency letters as clinical optotypes. Vision. Res. 1978; 9: 1063–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 3.8
    Ginsburg A.P. Specifying relevant spatial information for image evaluation and display design: An explanation of how we see certain objects. Proceedings of the Society for Information Displays 1980; 21(3).Google Scholar
  9. 3.9
    Ferris F.L. III, Kassoff A., Bresnick G.H. et al. New visual acuity charts for clinical research. Am. J. Ophthal. 1982; 94: 91–96.Google Scholar
  10. 3.10
    Ginsburg A.P. Need for standard glare, contrast sensitivity tests. Ocular Surgery News 1988; 6 (6): 25–32.Google Scholar
  11. 3.11
    Ginsburg A.P. A new contrast sensitivity vision test chart. Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 1984; 61 (6): 403–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 3.12
    Corwin T.R., Richman J.E. Three clinical tests of the spatial contrast sensitivity function: A comparison. Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 1986; 63(6): 413–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 3.13
    Ginsburg A.P. The visualization of diagnostic images. Radiographics 1987; 7: 1251–1260.Google Scholar
  14. 3.14
    Committee on Vision, National Research Council. Emergent Techniques for As-sessment of Visual Performance. Washington: National Academy; 1985.Google Scholar
  15. 3.15
    Woo G.C., Bohnsack H. Comparison of the distance and near Vistech vision contrast test systems (VCTS). Can. J. Opt. 1986; 48 (1): 12–15.Google Scholar
  16. 3.16
    Ginsburg A.P. The evaluation of contact lenses and refractive surgery using contrast sensitivity. In: Dabezies O.H., ed. Contact Lenses: The CLAO Guide to Basic Science and Clinical Practice (update 2). Orlando: Grune and Stratton; 1987: 56. 1–56. 17.Google Scholar
  17. 3.17
    Hess R., Woo G.C. Vision through cataracts. Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 1978; 17: 428–435.Google Scholar
  18. 3.18
    Ginsburg A.P., Todesco J. Evaluation of functional vision of cataract and YAG posterior capsulatomy patients using the Vistech contrast sensitivity chart. Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 1986; 27(3) Suppl: 107.Google Scholar
  19. 3.19
    Ginsburg A.P. Clinical findings from a new contrast sensitivity test chart. In: Fiorentini A., Guyton D.L., Siegel I.M., eds. Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics. Berlin: Springer; 1987: 132–140.Google Scholar
  20. 3.20
    Ginsburg A.P. Visual Information Processing Based on Spatial Filters Constrained by Biological Data (AFARML report). Cambridge: University of Cambridge; 1978: 78–129.Google Scholar
  21. 3.21
    Ginsburg A.P., Evans D., Sekuler R., Harp S.A. Contrast sensitivity predicts pilots’ performance in aircraft simulators. Am. J. Opt. Physiol.Opt. 1982; 59 (1): 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 3.22
    Ginsburg A.P., Easterly J., Evans D. Contrast sensitivity predicts target detection field performance of pilots. Proc. Hum. Factors Soc. 1980; 1: 269–273.Google Scholar
  23. 3.23
    Evans D., Ginsburg A. Contrast sensitivity predicts age-related differences in highway sign discriminability. Hum. Factors 1985; 27: 637–642.Google Scholar
  24. 3.24.
    Holliday L.L. The fundamentals of glare and visibility. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1926; 12: 271–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 3.25
    Lebsensohn J.E. Night driving. Am. J. Ophthal. 1949; 32: 860–862.Google Scholar
  26. 3.26
    Olsen P.A., Sivak M. Glare from automobile rear view mirrors. Hum. Factors 1984; 26: 269–282.Google Scholar
  27. 3.27
    Nadler D.J., Jaffe N.S., Clayman A.M. et al. Glare disability in eyes with intraocular lenses. Am. J. Ophthal. 1984; 97: 43–47.Google Scholar
  28. 3.28
    Paulsson L.E., Sjostrand J. Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare light: Theoretical concepts and preliminary clinical studies. Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 1980; 19: 401–406.Google Scholar
  29. 3.29
    Bennett C. The demographic variables of discomfort glare. Lighting Des. Appl. 1977; January: 22–31.Google Scholar
  30. 3.30
    Bennett C. Discomfort glare. Concentrated sources parametric study of angularly small sources. Ilium. Eng. 1977; 2: 244–246.Google Scholar
  31. 3.31
    Ginsburg A.P. Direct performance assessment of HUD display systems using contrast sensitivity. In: National Aerospace Electronics Conference Mini-Course Notes (Dayton, Ohio, May 17–19). New York: IEEE; 1983: 33–44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur P. Ginsburg
  • William R. Hendee

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations