The Role of Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, Epidermal Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factor β in Diabetic Kidney Disease: An Update

  • Allan Flyvbjerg
  • Charlotte Hill
  • Birgitte Nielsen
  • Henning Grønbæk
  • Martin Bak
  • Thora Chistiansen
  • Ann Logan
  • Hans Ørskov


Various growth factors have been proposed to be players in different areas of diabetes mellitus including a possible relationship to the characteristic changes in metabolism and development of complications. In particular, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) system have a long and distinguished history with relation both to the diabetic metabolic aberration and the pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy. The published evidence covering this area has recently been reviewed [1–3]. Further, substantial evidence has suggested that some growth factors (i.e. GH and IGFs, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-ß), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-α) and fibroblastic growth factors (FGFs)) have conceivable effects on the development of renal complications in diabetes as reviewed in The Kidney and Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus, Second Edition, 1994 [4]. The present review is an update of the topic with emphasis on three of the above mentioned growth factor systems. The first part of the review presents an update for a definite role of the GH/IGF system in the pathogenesis of the renal changes in experimental diabetes with focus on the renoprotective effects of long-acting somatostatin analogues and GH-receptor antagonists. In the second and third part, an update of the literature is presented suggesting a causal role for EGF and TGF-β in the development of diabetic kidney disease.


Growth Hormone Diabetic Nephropathy Experimental Diabetes Diabetic Kidney Disease Renal Hypertrophy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan Flyvbjerg
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Charlotte Hill
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Birgitte Nielsen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Henning Grønbæk
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Martin Bak
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Thora Chistiansen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ann Logan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hans Ørskov
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Aarhus KommunehospitalUniversity of AarhusAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  3. 3.Medical Research Lab. M and Medical Department M (Diabetes and Endocrinology)Denmark

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