Office Tests for Microalbuminuria

  • Per Løgstrup Poulsen


Microalbuminuria defined as an increase in urinary albumin excretion rate to the range 20–200 μig/min not only predicts later development of nephropathy in diabetic subjects [1–4] but may also guide the detection or prediction of other complications e.g. proliferative retinopathy [5,6]. In addition, microalbuminuria is also strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease in diabetic as well as non-diabetic patients [7,8].


Diabetic Nephropathy Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Urinary Albumin Excretion Dipstick Test Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Viberti GC, Hill RD, Jarrett RJ, Argyropoulos A, Mahmud U, Keen H. Microalbuminuria as a predictor of clinical nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1982;i: 1430–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parving H-H, Oxenbøll B, Johansen K, Svendsen PA, Christiansen JS, Andersen AR. Early detection of patients at risk of developing diabetic nephropathy: a longitudinal study of urinary albumin excretion. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1982; 100: 500–505.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mogensen CE, Christensen CK. Predicting diabetic nephropathy in insulin-dependent patients. N Engl J Med 1984;311:89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mathiesen ER, Oxenbell B, Johansen K, Svendsen PA, Deckert T. Incipient nephropathy in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1984; 26: 406–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vigstrup J, Mogensen CE. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy: at risk patients identified by early detection of microalbuminuria. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1985; 63: 530–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parving H-H, Hommel E, Mathiesen E. Prevalence of microalbuminuria, arterial hypertension, retinopathy and neuropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. BMJ 1988; 296: 156–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Damsgaard EM, Frøland A, Jørgensen OD, Mogensen CE. Microalbuminuria as a predictor of increased mortality in elderly people. BMJ 1990; 300: 297–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yudkin JS, Forrest RD, Jackson CA. Microalbuminuria as a predictor of vascular disease in non-diabetic subjects. Lancet 1988; ii: 530–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marre M, Chatellier G, Leblanc H, Guyene TT, Menard J, Passa P. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy with enalapril in normotensive diabetics with microalbuminuria. BMJ 1988; 297: 1092–1095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mathiesen ER, Hommel E, Giese J, Parving H-H. Efficacy of Captopril in postponing nephropathy in normotensive insulin dependent diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. BMJ 1991;303:81–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hallab M, Gallois Y, Chatellier G, Rohmer V, Fressinaud P, Marre M. Comparison of reduction in microalbuminuria by enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide in normotensive patients with insulin dependent diabetes. BMJ 1993; 306:175–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Viberti GC, Mogensen CE, Groop L, Pauls JF for the European Microalbuminuria Captopril Study Group. Effect of Captopril on progression to clinical proteinuria in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria. JAMA 1994; 271: 275–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    The Microalbuminuria Captopril Study Group. Captopril reduces the risk of nephropathy in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria. Diabetologia 1996;39(5): 587–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The EUCLID Study Group : Randomised placebo-controlled trial of lisinopril in normotensive patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Lancet 1997; 349:1787–1792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Kroc Collaborative Study Group. Blood glucose control and the evolution of diabetic retinopathy and albuminuria. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reichard P, Nilsson BY, Rosenqvist U. The effect of long-term intensified insulin treatment on the development of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. N EngJ J Med 1993; 329: 304–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Feldt-Rasmussen B, Mathiesen ER, Jensen T, Lauritzen T, Deckert T. Effect of improved metabolic control on loss of kidney function in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients: an update of the Steno studies. Diabetologia 1991; 34: 164–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Borch-Johnsen K, Wenzel H, Viberti GC, Mogensen CE. Is screening and intervention for microalbuminuria worthwhile in patients with insulin dependent diabetes? BMJ 1993; 306: 1722–1723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Feldt-Rasmussen B, Mathiesen ER. Variability of urinary excretion in incipient diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic Nephropathy 1984; 3:101–103.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johnston J, Paterson KR, O’Reilly D. Estimating urinary albumin excretion rate of diabetic patients in clinical practice. BMJ 1993; 306: 493–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marshall SM, Alberti KG. Comparison of the prevalence and associated features of abnormal albumin excretion in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Q J Med 1989; 70: 61–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hutchison AS, Paterson KR. Collecting urine for microalbumin assay. Diabetic Med 1988; 5: 527–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gatling W, Knight C, Hill RD. Screening for early diabetic nephropathy: Which sample to detect microalbuminuria? Diabetic Med 1985; 2: 451–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krolewski AS, Warram JH, Christlieb AR. The changing natural history of nephropathy in type I diabetes. Am J Med 1985; 78: 785–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mogensen CE, Keane WF, Bennett PH, Jerums G, Parving H-H, Passa P, Steffes MW, Striker GE, Viberti CG: Prevention of diabetic renal disease with special reference to microalbuminuria. Lancet 346:1080–1084,1995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Poulsen PL, Mogensen CE: Evaluation of a New Semiquantitative Stix for Microalbuminuria. Diabetes Care 8:732–733,1995.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schmitz A Microalbutest: A new screening method for detection of microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus. Uremia Invest 1985; 9: 79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leedman PJ, Nankervis A, Goodwin M, Ratnaike S. Assessment of the albuscreen microalbuminuria kit in diabetic outpatients. Med J Aust 1987; 147:285–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Collins V, Zimmet P, Dowse GK, Finch CF. Performance of Micro-Bumintest tablets for detection of microalbuminuria in Nauruaans. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1989; 6: 271–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Coonrod BA, Ellis D, Becker DJ, et al. Assessment of AlbuSure and its usefulness in identifying IDDM subjects at increased risk for developing clinical diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care 1989; 12: 389–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bangstad H J, Try K, Dahl Jørgensen K, Hanssen KF. New semiquantitative dipstick test for microalbuminuria. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 1094–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jury DR, Mikkelsen DJ, Glen D, Dunn PJ. Assessment of Micral-Test microalbuminuria test strip in the laboratory and in diabetic outpatients. Ann Clin Biochem 1992; 29: 96–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Poulsen PL, Hansen B, Amby T, Terkelsen T, Mogensen CE. Evaluation of a dipstick test for microalbuminuria in three different clinical settings, including the correlation with urinary albumin excretion rate. Diabete Metab 1992; 18:395–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marshall SM, Shearing PA, Alberti KG. Micral-Test strips evaluated for screening for albuminuria. Clin Chem 1992; 38: 588–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Agardh CD. A new semiquantitative rapid test for screening for microalbuminuria. Pract Diabetes 1993; 10:146–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Adamson CL, Kumar S, Sutcliffe H, France MW, Boulton AJM. Screening for strategies in the detection of microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Pract Diabetes 1993; 10: 142–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jensen J-EB, Nielsen SH, Foged L, Holmegaard SN, Magid E. The Micral® test for diabetic microalbuminuria: predictive values as a function of prevalence. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1996; 56: 117–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pugia MJ, Lott JA, Clark LW, Parker DR, Wallace JF, Willis TW. Comparison of urine dipsticks with quantitative methods for microlbuminuria. Eur J Clin Biochem 1997; 35(9):693–700.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Poulsen PL., and Mogensen CE. Evaluation of a new semiquantitative stix for microalbuminuria Diabetes Care l995; 18: 732–733.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mogensen, C. E., G. C. Viberti, E. Peheim, D. Kutter, C. Hasslacher, W. Hofmann, R. Renner, M Bojestig, P. L. Poulsen, G. Scott, J. Thoma, J. Kuefer, B. Nilsson, B. Gambke, P. Mueller, J. Steinbiss, and K. D. Willaraovski. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the Micra-test II test-strip, an immunological rapid test for the detection of microalbuminuria. Diabetes Care 1997; 20:1642–1646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Poulsen PL. and CE. Mogensen. 1998. Clinical evaluation of a test for immediate and quantitative determination of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:97–98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Løgstrup Poulsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical Department MAarhus KommunehospitalAarhusDenmark

Personalised recommendations