Retinopathy in Relation to Albuminuria and Blood Pressure in IDDM

  • Nish Chaturvedi
  • John H. Fuller


The microvascular complications of diabetes, retinopathy and nephropathy, are often considered as a single entity, with the implicit assumption of a close correlation between these complications, both in terms of occurrence, and in terms of putative risk factors [1–3]. It is certainly true that patients with one complication will generally demonstrate signs of the other, and that glycaemic control and duration of diabetes are clear risk factors for each of these complications [4–10]. But in contrast, current evidence indicates that while the majority of patients with IDDM will develop retinopathy (estimates vary from 70% to 100%) [11–13], only about a third of patients will develop detectable nephropathy [2,14], even when glycaemic control is poor, and the duration of diabetes is long [2,15].


Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic Retinopathy Glycaemic Control Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Albumin Excretion Rate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nish Chaturvedi
    • 1
  • John H. Fuller
    • 1
  1. 1.EURODIAB, Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthUniversity CollegeLondonUK

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