Hypertension, Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Diabetic Nephropathy: Role of Insulin Resistance

  • Anna Solini
  • Ralph A. Defronzo


Essential hypertension (blood pressure > 160/95 mmHg) is a common disorder that affects approximately 15–20% of Caucasian populations [1]. If a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg is used as the cut off value, then 40–45 % of the general population would be considered to have essential hypertension [1]. In nonwhite populations the incidence of essential hypertension is even higher. A number of factors including obesity, physical inactivity, age, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, smoking, and positive family history all have been linked to an increased incidence of essential hypertension. It is noteworthy that each one of these factors has been shown to be associated with the presence of insulin resistance [2–8]. Conversely, weight loss [9] and enhanced physical activity [10] have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to lower blood pressure.


Insulin Resistance Diabetic Nephropathy Essential Hypertension Atrial Natriuretic Peptide ATPase Pump 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Solini
  • Ralph A. Defronzo

There are no affiliations available

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