Aging

  • Albert Y. Sun
  • Grace Y. Sun
  • Laurie L. Foudin

Abstract

The brain is the central mechanism for controlling and programming the many processes in the body, either directly through nerve conduction or indirectly through hormonal intervention. The aging process in brain not only directly affects the neural functions, which include motivation, sleep cycle, learning, and memory, but also other body organ functions such as reproduction, food intake, and biological rhythmic events. Normal aging in brain is a gradual progressive change of the morphological, physiological, and biochemical processes with time after maturation.

Keywords

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Aging Process Aged Animal Brain Membrane Aging Phenomenon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Harman, D., 1982, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1: 27–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tappel, A. L., 1973, Fed. Proc. 32: 1870–1874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rockstein, M., Sussman, M. L., and Chesky, J., 1974, Theoretical Aspects of Aging, Academic Press, New York, p. 197.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shelanski, M. L., 1976, Neurobiology of Aging (R. D. Terry and S. Gershon, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 339–349.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Makinodan, T., 1977, Immunology and Aging (T. Makinodan and E. Yunis, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Norstrand, I. F., 1981, N. Y. State J. Med. 81: 956–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Finch, C. E., 1973, Brain Res. 52: 261–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beck, C. H. M., 1978, Can. J. Neurot, Sci. 5: 417–424.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brody, H., 1978, Aging, Volume 7, Alzheimer’s Disease: Senile Dementia and Related Disorders (R. Katzman, R. D. Terry, and K. L. Bick, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 345–351.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Handerson, G., Tomlinson, B. E. and Gibson, P. H., 1980, J. Neurol. Sci. 46: 113–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ball, M. J., 1977, Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 37: 11–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Terry, R. D., Peck, A., DeTeresa, R., Schechter, R., and Horoupian, D. S., 1981, Ann. Neurol. 10: 184–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pradhan, S. N., 1980, Life Sci. 26: 1643–1656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horrocks, L. A., VanRollins, M., and Yates, A. J., 1981, The Molecular Basis of Neuropathology (A. N. Davison and R. H. S. Thompson, eds.), Edward Arnold, London, pp. 601–630.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sun, A. Y., and Sun, G. Y., 1982, Nutritional Approaches to Aging Research (G. B. Moment, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 135–156.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Algeri, S., Calderini, G., Toffano, G., and Ponzio, F., 1983, Aging, Volume 22, Aging of the Brain (D. Samuel, S. Algeri, S. Gershon, V. E. Grimm, and G. Toffano, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 227–243.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cervos-Navarro, J., and Sarkandar, H.-I. (eds.), 1983, Aging, Volume 21, Brain Aging: Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bartus, R. T., Dean, R. L., Beer, B., and Lippa, A. S., 1981, Science 217: 408–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Demarest, K. T., Riegle, G. D., and Moore, K. E., 1980, Neuroendocrinotogy 31: 222–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Algeri, S., Bonati, M., Brunello, N., Ponzio, F., Stramentinoti, G., and Gualamo, M., 1978, Neuropsychopharmacotogy 2: 1647–1654.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    McGeer, E. G., 1981, Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. 5: 435–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Estes, K. S., and Simpkins, J. W., 1980, Brain Res. 194: 556–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Strong, R., Samorajski, T., and Gottesfeld, Z., 1982, J. Neurochem. 39: 831–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McGeer, E. G., and McGeer, P. L., 1975, Neurobiology of Aging (R. D. Terry and S. Gershon. eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 384–403.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    McGeer, P. L., and McGeer, E. G., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26: 65–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McGeer, P. L., McGeer, E. G., and Suzuki J. S., 1977, Arch. Neurol. 34: 33–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McNamara, M. C., Miller, A. T., Benigorus, V. A., and Davis. J. N., 1977, Brain Res. 131: 313–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reis. D. J., Ross, R. A., and Joh, T. H., 1977, Brain Res. 136: 465–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robinson, D. S., 1975, Fed. Proc. 34: 103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Feldman, J. M., and Roche, J. M., 1978. Exp. Aging Res. 4: 97–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Prange, A. J., White, J. E., Lipton, M. A., and Kinkead, A. M., 1967, Life Sci. 6: 581–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Benedetti, M. S., and Keane, P. E., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35: 1026–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leung, T. K. C., Lai, J. C. K., and Lim, L., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 2037–2043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shih, J. C., 1979, Monoamine Oxidase: Structure Function and Altered Functions (T. P. Singer, R. W. VonKorff, and D. L. Murphy, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 413–421.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fowler, C. J., Oreland, L., Marcusson, J., and Winblad, B., 1980, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 311: 263–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jonec, V., and Finch. C. E., 1975, Brain Res. 91: 197–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ponzio, F., Calderini, G., Lomuscio, G., Vantini, G., Toffano, G., and Algeri, S., 1982, Neurobiol. Aging 3: 23–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Simpkins, J. W., Mueller, G. P., Huang, H. H., and Meites, J., 1977, Endocrinology 100: 1672 1678.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Meek, J. L., Bertilsson, A. T., Cheney, D. L., Zsilla, G., and Costa, E., 1977, J. Gerontol. 32: 129–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bowen, D. M., Smith, C. B., White, P., Goodhardt, M. J., Spielane, J. A., Flack, R. H., and Davison, A. N., 1977, Brain 100: 397–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vijayan, V. K., 1977, Exp. Gerontol. 12: 7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Perry, E. K., 1980, Age Aging 9: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gibson, G. E., and Peterson, C., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 978–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gibson, G. E., Peterson, C., and Jenden, D. J., 1981, Science 213: 674–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    McGeer, E. G., and McGeer, P. L., 1980, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 23: 305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Perry, E. K., Gibson, P. A., Blessed, G., Perry, R. E., and Tomlinson, B. E., 1977, J. Neural. Sci. 34: 247–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kimura, H., McGeer, P. I., Peng, J. H., and McGeer, E. G., 1980, Science 208: 1057–1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nagai, T., McGeer, P. L., Peng, J. H., McGeer, E. G., and Dolman, C. E., 1983, Neurosci. Lett. 36: 195–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sherman, K., Dallob, A., Dean, R. L., Bartus, R. T., and Freedman, E., 1980, Fed. Proc. 39: 508.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sherman, K. A., Kuster, J. E., Dean, R. L., Bartus, R. T., and Friedman, E., 1981, Neurobiol. Aging 2: 99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hollemberg, M. D., 1979, Pharmacol. Rev. 30: 393–410.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Govoni, S., Trabucchi, M., Bosio, A., and Spano, P. F. 1983, Aging, Volume 21, Brain Aging: Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology (J. Cervos-Navarro and H.-I. Sarkandar, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 363–371.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pittman, R. N., Minneman, K. P., and Molinoff, P. B., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35: 273–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weiss, B., Greenberg, L. H., and Cantor. E., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38: 1915–1921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Greenberg, L. H. and Weiss, B., 1979, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 211: 304–316.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hershkowitz, M., Heron, D., Samuel, D., and Shinitzky, M., 1982, Prog. Brain Res. 56: 419–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Heron, D. S., Shinitzky, M., Hershkowitz, M., and Samuel, D., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 7463–7467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heron, D. S., Israeli, M., Hershkowitz, M., Samuel, D., and Shinitzky, M., 1981, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 72: 361–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shih, J. L., and Young, H., 1978, Life Sci. 23: 1441–1448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Joseph, J. A., Filburn, G. R., and Roth, G. S., 1978, J. Gerontol. 33: 643–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Joseph, J. A., Filburn, G. R., and Roth, G. S., 1981, Life Sci. 29: 575–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Memo, M., Lucchi, L., Spano, P. F., and Trabucchi, M., 1980, Brain Res. 202: 388–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Severson, J. A., and Finch, C. E., 1980, Brain Res. 192: 147–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thal, L. J., Horowitz, S. G., Dvorkin, B., and Makman, M. H., 1980, Brain Res. 192: 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Levin, P., Janda, J. K., Joseph, J. A., Ingram, D. K., and Roth, G. S., 1981, Science 214: 561–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Severson, J. A., Marcusson, J., Winblad, B., and Finch, C. E., 1982, J. Neurochem. 39: 1623–1631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Makman, M. H., Ahn, H. S., Thal, L. J., Sharpless, N. S., Dvorkin, B., Horowitz, S. G., and Rosenfeld, M., 1980, Brain Res. 192: 177–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    White, P., Hiley, C. R., Goodhardt, M. J., Carrasco, L., Keet, J. P., Williams, J. E. J., and Bowen, D. M., 1977, Lancet 1: 668–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Davies, P., and Verth, A. H., 1978, Brain Res. 138: 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    James, T. C., and Kanango, M. S., 1976, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 72: 170–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Barden, N., Dupont, A., Larrie, F., Merand, Y., Rouleau, D., Vaudry, H., and Boissier, J. R., 1981, Brain Res. 208: 209–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gambert, S. R., Gaithwaite, T. L., Pontzer, C. H., and Hagen, T. C., 1980, Neuroendocrinology 31: 252–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Missale, C., Govoni, S., Croce, L., Bosio, A., Spano, P. F., and Trabucchi, M., 1983, J. Neurochem. 40: 20–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kavaliers, M., Hirst, M., and Teskey, G. C., 1983, Life Sci. 32: 2279–2287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Messing, R. B., Vasquez, B. J., Spiehler, V. R., Martinez, J. L., Jensen, R. A., Rigter, H., and McGaugh, J. L., 1980, Life Sci. 26: 921–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Messing, R. B., Vasquez, B. J., Samaniego, B., Jensen, R. A., Martinez, Jr., J. L., and McGaugh, J. L., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 784–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Patel, M. S., 1977, J. Gerontol. 32: 643–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Smith, C. B., 1981, Aging 17: 195–201.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Smith, C. B., 1980, Aging 13: 103–117.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    London, E. D., Nespor, S. M., Ohata, M., and Rapoport, S. I., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 217–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Parmacek, M. S., Fox, J. H., Harrison, W. H., Garron, D. C., and Swemie, D., 1979, Gerontology 25: 185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Simard, D., 1971, Brain 94: 273–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Leong, S. F., Lai, J. C. K., Lim, L., and Clark, J. B., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 1548–1556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Deshmukh, D. R., Owen, O. E., and Patel, M. S., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 1219–1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yadav, S. R. N., and Singh, B. N., 1980, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 633: 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ryder, E., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 1550–1552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Donato, H., and Sohal, R. S., 1981, CRC Handbook of Biochemistry in Aging (E. Florini, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 221–227.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pullarkat, R. K., and Reha, H., 1982, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 13: 165.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wolfe, L. S., and Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K., 1982, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 13: 100.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Samorajski, T., Ordy, J. M., and Keefe, J. R., 1965, J. Cell. Biol. 26: 779–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zeman, W., 1971, Adv. Gerontol. Res. 3: 147–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ingram, D. K., London, E. D., and Goodrick, C. L., 1981, Neurobiol. Aging 2: 41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Siakotos, A. N., and Armstong, D., 1975, Neurobiology of Aging (J. M. Ordy and K. R. Brizzee, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 369–400.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Selkoe, D. J., 1982, Trends Neurosci. 5: 332–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Brizzee, K. R., Samorajski, T., Brizzee, D. L., Ordy, J. M., Dunlop, W., and Smith, R. E., 1983, Brain Aging: Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology (J. Cervos-Navarro and H.-I. Sarkandar, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 211–230.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sulkin, N. M., 1958, Anat. Rec. 130: 377–378.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sulkin, N. M., and Srivary, P., 1960, J. Gerontol. 15: 2–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sun, A. Y., 1976, Exp. Aging Res. 2: 207–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Reinhardt, V., and Gerhard, L., 1983, Aging, Volume 21, Brain Aging: Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology (J. Cervos-Navarro and H.-I. Sarkandar, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 97–113.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Salazar, M., Sokoloski, T. D., and Patil, P. N., 1978, Fed. Proc. 37: 2404–2407.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Marsden, C. D., 1965, Lancet 2: 1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Orgel, L. E., 1963, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 49: 517–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Comfort, A., 1974, Mech. Ageing Dev. 3: 1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Strehler, B. L., 1977, Time, Cells, and Aging, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Burnet, R. M., 1974, Intrinsic Mutagenesis: A Genetic Approach to Aging, John Wiley and Sons, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Price, G. B., and Makinodan, T., 1973, Gerontology 19: 58–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cutler, R. G., 1975, Exp. Gerontol. 10: 37–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mann, D. M. A., Yates, P. 0., and Stamp, J. E., 1978, J. Neurol. Sci. 37: 83–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Colman, P. D., Kaplan, B. B., Osterburg, H. H., and Finch, C. E., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 335–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Johnson, R., and Strehler, B., 1972, Nature 240: 412–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Strehler, B. L., and Chang, M. P., 1979, Mech. Ageing Dey. 11: 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Strehler, B. L., Chang, M. P., and Johnson, L. K., 1979, Mech. Ageing Dev. 11: 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gaubatz, J., Prashad, N., and Cutler, R. G., 1976, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 418: 358–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Strehler, B. L., 1983, Aging, Volume 21, Brain Aging: Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology (J. Cervos-Navarro and H.-I. Sarkandar, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 75–95.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Meites, J., Steger, R. W., and Huang, H. H. H., 1980, Fed. Proc. 39: 3168–3172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gudelsky, G. A., Nansel, D. D., and Porter, J. C. 1981, Brain Res. 204: 446–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Singer, S. J., and Nicolson, G. L., 1972, Science 185: 720–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Silbert, D. F., Cronan, Jr. J. E., Beacham, I. R., and Harder, M. E., 1974, Fed. Proc. 33: 356–372.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sun, A. Y., and Sun, G. Y., 1976, Function and Metabolism of Phospholipids in CNS and PNS (G. Porcellati, L. Amaducci, and G. Galli, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 169–197.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Shinitzky, M., and Henkart, P., 1979, Int. Rev. Cytol. 60: 121–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Zs-Nagy, I., 1979, Mech. Ageing Dev. 9: 237–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hegner, D., 1980, Mech. Ageing Dev. 14: 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Shinitzky, M., Heron, D. S., and Samuel, D., 1983, Aging, Volume 22, Aging of the Brain (D. Samuel, S. Algeri, S. Gershon, V. E. Grimm, and G. Toffano, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 329–336.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hothersall, J., Daddridge, R. J., and Baquet-, N., 1983, J. Neurochem. 41: S21.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Calderini, G., Bonetti, A. C., Crews, F. T., and Toffano, G., 1983, J. Neurochem. 41: S21.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kendrick, Z. V., Goldfarb, A. H., Roberts, J., and Baskin, S. I., 1980. Neural Regulatory Mechanisms During Aging (R. C. Adelman. J. Roberts, G. T. Baker, S. I. Baskin, and V. J. Cristofato, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 223–225.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sun, G. Y., and Horrocks, L. A., 1970, Lipids 5:1006–1012.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hollocher, T. C., and Griffin, J. B., 1967, Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems (A. Ehrenberg, B. G. Malmstron, and T. Vanngard, eds.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 303–311.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tollin G. and Fox, J. L., 1967, Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems (A. Ehrenberg, B. G. Malmstron. and T. Vanngard, eds.), Pergamon Press. New York, pp. 289–297.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Leibovitz, B. E., and Siegel, B. V., 1980. J. Gerontol. 35: 45–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hochstein, P., and Ernster, L., 1963, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 12: 388–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Dillard, C. J., Litov, R. E., and Tappet, A. L., 1978, Lipids 13: 396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Dillard, C. J., and Tappet, A. L., 1979, Lipids 12: 989–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tappel, A. L., and Dillard, C. J., 1981, Fed. Proc. 40: 174–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    McCord, J. M., and Fridovich, I., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 6056–6063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sun, A. Y., 1972, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 266: 350–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hexum, T. D., and Fried, R., 1979, Neurochem. Res. 4: 73–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Weisiger, R., and Fridovich, I., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 218: 3582–3592.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vanella, A., Geremia, E., D’Urso, G., Tiriolo, P., Di Silvestro, I., Grimaldi, R., and Pintaro, R., 1982, Gerontology 28: 108–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Danh, H. C., Benedetti, M. S., and Dostert, P., 1983. J. Neurochem. 40: 1003–1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sun, A. Y., and Sun, G. Y., 1978. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 97: 285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sun, A. Y., and Sun, G. Y., 1979, Interdisc. Top. Gerontol. 15: 34–53.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sun, A. Y. and Samorajski, T., 1975, J. Neurochem. 24: 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sun, A. Y., Samorajski, T., and Ordy, J., 1975, Neurobiology of Aging (J. M. Ordy, K. R. Brizzee, and P. Germe. eds.), Plenum Press, New York. pp. 505–520.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sun, A. Y., and Seaman, R. N., 1977, Exp. Aging Res. 3: 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Rouser, G., and Yamamoto, A., 1968, Lipids 3: 284–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rouser, G., and Yamamoto, A., 1969, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 1 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 121–169.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rouser, G., Kritchevsky, G., Yamamoto, H., and Baxter, C. F., 1972, Adv. Lipid Res. 10: 261–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Horrocks, L. A., Sun, G. Y., and D’Amato, R. A., 1975, Neurobiology of Aging (J. M. Ordy and K. R. Brizzee, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 359–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Berlet, H. H., and Volk, B., 1980, Mech. Ageing Dev. 14: 211–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sun, G. Y., and Samorajski, T., 1972, J. Gerontol. 27: 10–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Quarto di Palo, F. M., Mombell, L. E., and Gastaldi, L., 1964, Gerontologia 10: 161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Bonetti, A. C., Battistella, A., Calderini, G. Teolato, S., Crews, F. T., Gaiti, A., Algeri, S., and Toffano, G., 1983, Aging, Volume 22, Aging of the Brain (D. Samuel, S. Algeri, S. Gershon, V. E. Grimm, and G. Toffano, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 171–181.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rawlins, F. A. and Smith, M. E., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 1861–1870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Horrocks, L. A., 1973, Prog. Brain Res. 40: 384–395.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Norton, W. T., and Poduslo, S. E., 1973. J. Neurochem. 21: 759–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Malone, M. J., and Szoke, M. C., 1982, J. Gerontol. 37: 262–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sun, G. Y., and Foudin, L. L., 1984, Phospholipids in the Nervous System (J. Eichberg, ed.), John Wiley and Sons, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  159. Hawthorne, J. N., Stokes, C. E., and Gillon, K. R. W., 1983,.J. Neurochem. 41:S21.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Svennerholm, L., 1968, J. Lipid Res. 9: 570–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Norton, W. T., 1971, Chemistry and Brain Development (R. Paoletti and A. N. Davison, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Smith, M. E., 1973, J. Lipid Res. 14: 541–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Sun, G. Y., and Samorajski, T., 1973, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 316: 19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Svennerholm, L., Vanier, M.-T., and Jungbjer, B., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 1383–1390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Horrocks, L. A., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 483–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Sun, G. Y., and Sun, A. Y., 1972, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 230: 306–315.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hitzemann, R. J., and Johnson, D. A., 1983, Neurochem. Res. 8: 121–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hitzemann, R., 1981, Neurochem. Res. 6: 935–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Sun, G. Y., Tang, W., Majewska, M. D., Hallett, D. W., Foudin, L., and Huang, S., 1983, Neural Membranes (G. Y. Sun, N. Bazan, J.-Y. Wu, G. Porcellati, and A. Y. Sun, eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, New Jersey, pp. 67–95.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Rahmann, H., 1980, Aging, Volume 13, Aging of the Brain and Dementia (L. Amaducci, A. N. Davison, and P. Antuono, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 75–79.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Burger, M., 1957, Abh. Such. Akad. Wis. Leipzig 45: 1–62.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Cherayil, G. D., 1969, J. Neurochem. 16: 913–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Berra, B., and Brunngraber, E. G., 1974, Biochem. Exp. Biol. 11: 401–405.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Fredman, P., Nilsson, O., Tayot, J.-L., and Svennerholm. L., 1980. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 618: 42–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Segler-Stahl, K., Webster, J. C., and Brunngraber. E. G., 1983, Gerontology 29: 161–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hemming, F. W., 1974, MTP International Reviews of Science, Biochemistry Series-1, Volume 4 (T. W. Goodwin, ed.), Butterworths and University Park Press, London, pp. 39–98.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Lennarz, W. J., 1975, Science 188: 986–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Parodi, A. J., and Leloir, L. F., 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 559: 1–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rupar, C. A., and Carroll, K. K., 1978, Lipids 23: 291–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Breckenridge, W. C., Wolfe, L. S., and Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21: 1311–1318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Pullarkat, R. K., and Reha, H., 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 5991–5993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K., Palo, J., Haltia, M., and Wolfe, L. S., 1983, J. Neurochem. 40: 1465–1473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Sun, G. Y., 1982, Phospholipids in the Nervous System, Volume 1: Metabolism (L. A. Horrocks, G. B. Ansell, and G. Porcellati, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 75–89.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Porcellati, G. 1983, Neural Membranes (G. Y. Sun, N. Bazan. J.-Y. Wu, G. Porcellati, and A. Y. Sun, eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, New Jersey. pp. 3–35.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Brunetti, M., Gaiti, A., and Porcellati, G., 1979, Lipids 14: 925–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Gaiti, A., Brunetti, M., Sitkiewicz, D., Porcellati, G., and Woelk. H., 1980, Aging of the Brain and Dementia (L. Amaducci, A. N. Davison, and G. Porcellati, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 65–73.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Gaiti, A., Brunetti, M., and Porcellati, G., 1979, Bull. Mol. Biol. Med. 4: 24–36.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Gaiti, A., Sitkiewicz, D., Brunetti, M., and Porcellati, G., 1981, Neurochem. Res. 6: 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Gaiti, A., Brunetti, M., Piccinin, G. L., Woelk, H., and Porcellati, G., 1982, Lipids 17: 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Porcellati, G., Gaiti, A., Brunetti. M., Teolato, S., and Miscena, A., 1983, Aging, Volume 22, Aging of the Brain (D. Samuel, S. Algeri, S. Gershon, V. E. Grimm, and G. Toffano, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 301–308.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Hennacy, D. M., and Horrocks, L. A., 1978, Bull. Mol. Biol. Med. 3: 207–221.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Gaiti, A., Brunetti, M., Gaiti, C. Teolato, S., Calderini, G., and Porcellati, G., 1984, Physiological Role of Phospholipids in the Nervous System (L. A. Horrocks, J. N. Kanfer, and G. Porcellati, eds.), Raven Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Sun, G. Y., 1971, Neurobiology 1: 232–238.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lands, W. E. M., and Crawford, C. G., 1976, The Enzymes of Biological Membranes, Volume 2 (A. Martonosi, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 3–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Corbin, D. R., and Sun, G. Y., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Strosznajder, J., Foudin, L., Tang, W., and Sun, G. Y., 1983. J. Neurochem. 40: 84–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Crews, F. T., Calderini, G., Battistella, A., and Toffano, G., 1981, Brain Res. 229: 256–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Hirata, F., Strittmatter, W. J., and Axelrod, J., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 368–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Strittmatter, W. J., Hirata, F., Axelrod, J., Mallorga, J., Tallman, J. F., and Henneberry, J., 1979, Nature 282: 857–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Maggi, A., Schmidt, M., Ghetti. B., and Enna, S. J. 1978, Life Sci. 24: 367–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Misra, C. H., Shelat, H., and Smith R. C., 1980, Life Sci. 27: 521–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ohman, R., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 531–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Segall, P., 1979, Mech. Ageing Dev. 9: 515–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Masoro, E. J., Yu, B. P., Bertrand, H. A., and Lynd, F. T., 1980, Fed. Proc. 39: 3178–3182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Berg, B. N., and Simms, H. S. 1960, J. Nutr. 71: 255–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Leto, S., Kokkonen, G., and Barrow, C. H., 1976, J. Gerontol. 31: 144–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Goodrick, C. L., 1978, J. Gerontol. 33: 184–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Enesco, H. E., and Kruk, P., 1981, Erp. Gerontol. 16: 357–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Harman, D., 1971, J. Gerontol. 26: 451–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Harman, D., 1978, Age 1: 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Harman, D., 1968, J. Gerontol. 23: 476–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Comfort, A., 1971, Nature 229: 254–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Clapp, N. K., Satterfield, L. C., and Bowles, N. D., 1979, J. Gerontol. 34: 497–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Tappel, A. L., Fletcher, B., and Deamer, D., 1973. J. Gerontol. 28: 415–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Toffano, G., and Bruni, A., 1980, Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 12: 829–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Toffano, G., Calderini, G., and Bruni, A., 1984. Physiological Role of Phospholipids in the Nervous System (L. A. Horrocks, J. N. Kanfer. and G. Porcellati, eds.), Raven Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Eddy, D., and Harman, D., 1977, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 25: 220–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Eddy, D. E., and Harman, D., 1975, J. Gerontol. 30: 647–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Chapman, D., 1972, Lipids, Malnutrition and the Developing Brain (K. Elliott and J. Knight, eds.), Associated Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 31–57.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Lamptey, M. S., and Walker, B. L., 1976, J. Nutr. 106: 86–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Hruska, R. E., and Silbergeld, E. K., 1980, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 61: 397–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Levin, P., Haji, M., Joseph, J. A., and Roth, G. S. 1983, Life Sci. 32: 1743–1749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Marchbanks, R. M. 1982, J. Neurochem. 39: 9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Bartus, R. T., Dean, R. L., Goas, J. A., and Lippa, A. S., 1980, Science 209: 301–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Pendley, C. E., Horrocks, L. A., and Mervis, R. F., 1983, Neural Membranes (G. Y. Sun, N. Bazan, J.-Y. Wu, G. Porcellati, and A. Y. Sun, eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, New Jersey, pp. 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Horrocks, L. A., Pendley, C. E., Demediuk, P., and Mervis, R. F., 1984, Physiological Role of Phospholipids in the Nervous System (L. A. Horrocks, J. N. Kanfer, G. Porcellati, eds.). Raven Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Papavasiliou, P. S., Miller, S. T., Thal, L. J., Nerder, L. J., Houlihan, G., Rao, S. N., and Stevens, J. M., 1981, Life Sci. 28: 2945–2952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Lancaster, J., Sawyer, P. R., Shepherd, D. M., and Turnbull, M. J., 1973, Br. J. Pharmacol. 47: 838–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Walker, R. F., and Timiras, P. S. 1982, Cellular Pacemakers II (D. Carpenter, ed.), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 345–365.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Timiras, P. S., Cole, G., Croteau, M., Hudson, D. B., Miller, C., and Segall, P. E., 1983, Aging, Volume 23, Aging Brain and Ergot Alkaloids (A. Agnoli, G. Crepaldi, P. F. Spano, and M. Trabucchi, eds.), Raven Press. New York, pp. 23–35.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Timiras, P. S., Hudson, D. B., and Jones, S. L., 1980, Progress in Psychoneuroendocrinology (F. Brambilla, G. Racagni, and D. de Wied, eds.), Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp. 571–587.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Walker, R. F., Cooper, R. I., and Timiras, P. S., 1980, Endocrinology 107: 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Nickolson, V. J., and Wolthuis, O. L., 1976, Biochem. Pharmacol. 25: 2241–2244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Woelk, H., 1979, Pharmakophychiatrie 12: 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Woelk, H., and Peiler-Ichikawa. K., 1978, Arzneim. Forsch. 28: 1752–1756.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Nandy, K., 1983, Aging, Volume 21, Brain Aging: Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology (J. Cervos-Navarro and H.-I. Sarkandar, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 401–413.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Samorajski, T., Strong, J. R., Sun, G. Y., Sun, A. Y., and Seaman, R. N., 1978. Gerontology 24: 43–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Goodnick, P. J., and Gershon, S. 1983, Aging, Volume 22, Aging of the Brain (D. Samuel, S. Algeri, S. Gershon, V. E. Grimm, and G. Toffano, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 349–361.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Giacobini, E., 1983, Aging, Volume 77, Aging of the Brain (D. Samuel, S. Algeri, S. Gershon, V. E. Grimm, and G. Toffano, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 197–210.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Finch, C. E., 1976, O. Rev. Biol. 51: 49–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Y. Sun
    • 1
  • Grace Y. Sun
    • 1
  • Laurie L. Foudin
    • 1
  1. 1.Sinclair Comparative Medicine Research Farm and Biochemistry DepartmentUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations