Wallerian Degeneration

  • Arnulf H. Koeppen

Abstract

The interruption of a peripheral nerve produces a predictable sequence of events in the distal segment. Morphological changes occur in all tissue constituents of the portion that has been separated from its parent cell body, but the fragmentation of the myelin sheath has attracted most attention. The phenomena in the distal segment are now called “Wallerian degeneration” in honor of Augustus V. Waller,1 who, in 1850, described them in the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves of the frog. The degeneration is also known as “direct,” as contrasted with “indirect,” Wallerian degeneration (see below). Axonal interruption leads to a characteristic response in the parent neuron, “axon reaction” including the phenomenon of “central chromatolysis.” This response is usually reversible, but some neurons disappear. Their death results in degeneration of the axon proximal to the original lesion. Thus, nerve interruption may lead to changes in the proximal segment, which are less dramatic than those of the distal segment. The proximal segment is said to undergo “indirect” Wallerian degeneration.2 Indirect Wallerian degeneration shows much species variation. It is most readily elicited in neonatal animals but occurs occasionally in adult experimental animals.

Keywords

Sciatic Nerve Schwann Cell Peripheral Nervous System Cholesteryl Ester Myelin Sheath 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Waller, A., 1850, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 140: 423–429.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    van Gehuchten, A., 1903, Névraxe 5: 3–107.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nathaniel, E. J. H., and Pease, D. C., 1963, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 9: 511–532.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nathaniel, E. J. H., and Nathaniel, D. R., 1977, Exp. Neurol. 54: 60–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nathaniel, E. J. H., and Nathaniel, D. R., 1977, Exp. Neurol. 54: 217–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aldskogius, H., 1974, Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell. Biol. 50 (1): 1–78.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ochs, S., 1975, Clio Med. 10: 253–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Noll, A., 1899, Z. Physiol. Chem. 27: 370–397.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mott, F. W., and Halliburton, W. D., 1901, Lancet 1 (4): 1077–1078.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burt, N. S., NcNabb, A. R., and Rossiter, R. J., 1950, Biochem. J. 47: 318–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mott, F. W., and Barratt, J. O. W., 1899, Arch. Neurol. (Loud.) 1: 346–358.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    May, R. M., 1930, Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 12: 934–953.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    May, R. M., and Arnoux, J., 1941, Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 22: 286–298.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    May, R. M., 1947, Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 29: 1035–1042.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    May, R. M., 1948, Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 30: 562–566.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johnson, A. C., McNabb, A. R., and Rossiter, R. J., 1950, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 61: 105–121.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mannell, W. A., 1952, Can. J. Med. Sci. 30: 173–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bodian, D., and Dziewiatkowski, D., 1950, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 35: 155–177.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Samuels, A. J., Boyarsky, L. L., Gerard, R. W., Libet, B., and Brust, M., 1951, Am. J. Physiol. 164: 1–15.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lubinska, L., 1977, Brain Res. 130: 47–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fries, B. A., Schachner, H., and Chaikoff, I. L., 1942, J. Biol. Chem. 144: 59–66.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ranvier, M. L., 1878, Leçons sur l’Histologie du Système Nerveux, Librairie F. Savy, Paris.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ramón y Cajal, S., 1928, Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System, Volume 1, Oxford University Press, Humphrey Milford, London, pp. 66–99.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holländer, H., and Mehraein, P., 1966, Z. Zellforsch. 72: 276–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Williams, P. L., and Hall, S. M., 1971, J. Anat. (Lond.) 109: 487–503.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    von Büngner, 0., 1891, Beitr. Pathol. Anat. 10: 321–393.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tuckett, I. L., 1896, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 19: 267–311.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nageotte, J., 1932, Cytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System (W. Penfield, ed.), P. B. Hoeber, New York, pp. 191–239.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ghabriel, M. N., and Alit, G., 1979, Acta Neuropathol. 48: 83–93.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ghabriel, M. N., and Allt, G., 1979, Acta Neuropathol. 48: 95–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thomas, P. K., 1974, Essays on the Nervous System (R. Bellairs and E. G. Gray, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 44–70.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Allt, G., 1976, The Peripheral Nerve (D. N. Landon, ed.), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 666–739.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Abrahams, P. H., Day, A., and Allt, G., 1981, Acta Neuropathol. 54: 95–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gershenbaum, M. R., and Roisen, F. J., 1978, Neuroscience 3: 1241–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Singer, M., and Steinberg, M. C., 1972, Am. J. Anat. 133: 51–84.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Feiss, H. O., and Cramer, W., 1912, Proc. R. Soc. Biol. (Lond.) 86: 119–127.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ingebritsen, R., 1916, J. Exp. Med. 23: 251–264.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., 1979, Progress in Neuropathology, Volume 4 (H. M. Zimmerman, ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 101–123.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vial, J. D., 1958, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 4: 551–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Honjin, R., Nakamura, T., and Imura, M., 1959, Okajimas Fol. Anat. Jpn. 33: 131–155.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Terry, R. D., and Harkin, J. C., 1959, The Biology of Myelin (S. R. Korey, ed.), HoeberHarper, New York, pp. 303–320.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ohmi, S., 1961, Z. Zellforsch. 54: 39–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wechsler, W., and Hager, H., 1962, Beitr. Pathol. Anat. Allg. Pathol. 126: 352–380.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    O’Daly, J. A., and Imaeda, T., 1967, Lab. Invest. 17: 744–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Melis, G., Giordano, D., and Palmas, T., 1967, Riv. Anat. Patol. Oncol. 31: 147–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Webster, H. deF., 1962, J. Cell Biol. 12: 361–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Holtzman, E., and Noioff, A. B., 1965, J. Cell Biol. 27: 651–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ballin, R. H. M., and Thomas, P. K., 1969, Acta Neuropathol. 14: 237–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Donat, J. R., and Wisniewski, H. M., 1973, Brain Res. 53: 41–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Webster, H., deF., 1965, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 122: 29–38.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Causey, G., and Palmer, E., 1953, J. Anat. (Lond.) 87: 185–191.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Causey, G., and Palmer, E., 1952, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) [Biol.] 139: 597–609.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Glimstedt, G., and Wohlfart, G., 1960, Acta. Morphol. Neerland. Scand. 3: 135–146.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Abercrombie, M., and Johnson, M. L., 1946, J. Anat. (Lond.) 80: 37–50.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Abercrombie, M., and Johnson, M. L., 1942, J. Exp. Biol. 19: 266–283.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liu, H. M., 1973, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 32: 458–473.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fisher, E. R., and Turano, A., 1963, Arch. Pathol. 75: 517–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Satinsky, D., Pepe, F. A., and Liu, C. N., 1964, Exp. Neurol. 9: 441–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Causey, G., 1960, The Cell of Schwann, Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Luse, S., 1968, Pathology of the Nervous System (J. Minckler, ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 585–607.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gould, R. M., Matsumoto, D., and Mattingly, G., 1982, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 1, 2nd ed. ( A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 397–414.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Asbury, A. K., 1970, Proceedings Sixth International Congress of Neuropathology, Masson and Cie, eds., Paris, pp. 666–682.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Weiss, P., and Wang, H., 1945, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 58: 273–275.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Olsson, Y., and Sjöstrand, J., 1969, Exp. Neurol. 23: 102–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Berner, A., Torvik, A., and Stenwig, A. E., 1973, Acta. Neuropathol. 25: 228–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Oehmichen, M., and Torvik, A., 1976, Cell Tissue Res. 173: 343–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gibson, J. D., 1979, J. Anat. (Lond.) 129: 1–19.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Olsson, Y., and Sjöstrand, J., 1969, Acta Neuropathol. 13: 111–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Olsson, Y., 1967, Acta Neurol. Scand. 43: 365–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Powell, H. C., Myers, R. R., Costello, M. L., and Lampert, P. W., 1979, Ann. Neurol. 5: 550–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lee, J. C.-Y., 1963, J. Comp. Neurol. 120: 65–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Thomas, P. K., King, R. H. M., and Phelps, A. C., 1972, J. Anat. (Lond.) 113: 279–280.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Taxi, J., 1959, C. R. Acad. Sci. [DI Paris 248: 2796–2798.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dyck, P. J., and Hopkins, A. P., 1972, Brain 95: 223–234.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    King, R. H. M., and Thomas, P. K., 1971, Acta Neuropathol. 18: 150–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Abercrombie, M., Evans, D. H. L., and Murray, J. G., 1959, J. Anat. (Land.) 93: 9–14.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Romine, J. S., Bray, G. M., and Aguayo, A. J., 1976, Arch. Neurol. 33: 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Noback, C. R., and Montagna, W., 1952, J. Comp. Neurol. 97: 211–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Noback, C. R., and Reilly, J. R. A., 1956, J. Comp. Neurol. 105: 333–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Adams, C. W. M., 1965, Neurohistochemistry (C. W. M. Adams, ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 6–66.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Adams, C. W. M., and Tugan, N. A., 1961, J. Neurochem. 6: 334–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Samorajski, T., 1957, J. Histochem. 5: 15–27.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wolfgram, F., and Rose, A. S., 1960, Neurology (Minneap.) 10: 365–371.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bubis, J. J., and Wolman, M., 1965, Israel J. Med. Sci. 1: 410–414.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Weller, R. O., and Mellick, R. S., 1966, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 47: 425–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hallpike, J. F., Adams, C. W. M., and Bayliss, O. B., 1970, Histochem. J. 2: 209–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hallpike, J. F., 1972, Frog. Histochem. Cytochem. 3: 179–215.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Marchant, J.,1949, J. Anat. (Lond.) 83:227–237.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Snell, R. S., 1957, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 38: 479–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lubinska, L., Niemierko, S., Oderfeld, B., and Szwarc, L., 1963, J. Neurochem. 10: 25–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Adams, C. W. M., and Tugan, N. A., 1961, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 9: 469–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Porcellati, G., and Thompson, R. H. S., 1957, J. Neurochem. 1: 340–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    de Sibrik, I., and O’Doherty, D. S., 1961, Neurology (Minneap.) 11: 899–904.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Friede, R. L., 1959, Exp. Neurol. 1: 441–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    de Sibrik, I., and O’Doherty, D., 1967, Arch. Neurol. 16: 628–634.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Greenfield, S., Brostoff, S., Eylar, E. H., and Morell, P., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20: 1207–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Trapp, B. D., McIntyre, L. J., Quarles, R. H., Sternberger, N. H., and Webster, H., deF., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 3552–3556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Trapp, B. D., and Quarles, R. H., 1982, J. Cell Biol. 92: 877–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schober, R., Itoyama, Y., Sternberger, N. H., Trapp, B. D., Richardson, E. P., Asbury, A. K., Quarles, R. H., and Webster, H. deF, 1981, Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 7: 421–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bignami, A., Dahl, D., Nguyen, B. T., and Crosby, C. J., 1981, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 40: 537–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Olsson, Y., 1966, Acta Neuropathol. 7: 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    de la Motte, D. J., and Allt, G., 1976, Acta Neuropathol. 36: 9–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Fukuhara, N., Kumamoto, T., Nakazawa, Y., and Tsubaki, T., 1979, Exp. Neurol. 63: 573–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sparrow, J. R., and Kiernan, J. A., 1981, Acta Neuropathol. 51: 181–188.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Malmgren, L. T., and Olsson, Y., 1979, Neurosci. Lett. 13: 13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Söderfeldt, B., and Olsson, Y., 1973, Acta Neuropathol. 25: 120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jakob, A., 1913, Histologische und Histopathologische Arbeiten über die Grosshirnrinde, Volume 5 (F. Nissl and A. Alzheimer, eds.), Gustav Fischer, Jena, pp. 1–181.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Türck, L., 1851, Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch., Math. Naturwissenschaft. Klasse 4: 288–312.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tooth, H. H., 1889, Br. Med. J. 1 (4):753–759Google Scholar
  110. Tooth, H. H., 1889, Br. Med. J. 1 (4):825–831Google Scholar
  111. Tooth, H. H., 1889, Br. Med. J. 1 (4): 873–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Knick, A., 1908, J. Psychol. Neurol. 12: 20–55.Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    Turner, J., and Singer, M., 1975, Anat. Rec. 181: 267–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Turner, J. E., and Glaze, K. A., 1977, Anat. Rec. 187: 291–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Kruger, L., and Maxwell, D. S., 1969, Am. J. Anat. 125: 247–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 114.
    Lassmann, H., Ammerer, H. P., and Kulnig, W., 1978, Acta Neuropathol. 44: 91–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Dunkerley, G. B., and Duncan, D., 1969, J. Comp. Neurol. 137: 155–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    Weil, A., 1945, Textbook of Neuropathology, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    Pecci Saavedra, J., Mascitti, T. A., and Perez Lloret, I. L., 1973, Brain Res. 50: 265–274.Google Scholar
  120. 118.
    Cook, R. D., Ghetti, B., and Wisniewski, H. M., 1974, Brain Res. 75: 261–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 119.
    van Crevel, H., and Verhaart, W. J. C., 1963, J. Anat. 97: 451–464.Google Scholar
  122. 120.
    van Crevel, H., and Verhaart, W. J. C., 1963, J. Anat. 97: 429–449.Google Scholar
  123. 121.
    McDonald, W. I., and Ohlrich, G. D., 1971, J. Anat. 110: 191–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Mastaglia, F. L., McDonald, W. I., and Yogendran, K., 1976, J. Neurol. Sci. 30: 259–267.Google Scholar
  125. 123.
    Vaughn, H. E., Hinds, P. L., and Skoff, R. P., 1970, J. Comp. Neurol. 140: 175–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 124.
    Vaughn, J. E., and Pease, D. C., 1970, J. Comp. Neurol. 140: 207–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Lassek, A. M., and Shapiro, W. J., 1951, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 10: 82–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 126.
    Luse, S. A., and McCaman, R. E., 1957, Am. J. Pathol. 33: 586.Google Scholar
  129. 127.
    Lampert, P. W., and Cressman, M. R., 1966, Am. J. Pathol. 49: 1139–1155.Google Scholar
  130. 128.
    Bignami, A., and Ralston, H. J., 1969, Brain Res. 13: 444–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 129.
    Inoue, Y., Terashima, T., Nishimura, Y., and Shimai, K., 1978, Okajima Fol. Anat. Jpn. 55: 153–180.Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    Inoue, T., Terashima, T., Nishimura, Y., and Shimai, K., 1980, Okajima Fol. Anat. Jpn. 57: 1–28.Google Scholar
  133. 131.
    Peters, A., 1960, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 8: 431–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 132.
    Bunge, M. B., Bunge, R. P., and Pappas, G. D., 1962, J. Cell Biol. 12: 448–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 133.
    Hirano, A., and Dembitzer, H. M., 1967, J. Cell Biol. 34: 555–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 134.
    Hirano, A., 1968, J. Cell Biol. 38: 637–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 135.
    Cook, R. D., 1974, J. Neurocytol. 3: 737–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 136.
    Cook, R. D., and Wisniewski, H. M., 1973, Brain Res. 61: 191–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 137.
    Skoff, R. P., and Vaughn, J. E., 1971, J. Comp. Neurol. 141: 133–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 138.
    Stenwig, A., 1972, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 72: 696–704.Google Scholar
  141. 139.
    Skoff, R. P., 1975, J. Comp. Neurol. 161: 595–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 140.
    Ling, E. A., 1978, J. Anat. (Lond.) 126: 111–121.Google Scholar
  143. 141.
    Konigsmark, B. W., and Sidman, R. L., 1963, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 22: 643–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 142.
    Huntington, H. W., and Terry, R. D., 1966, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 25: 645–653.Google Scholar
  145. 143.
    Fernando, D. A., 1973, Acta Anat. 86: 459–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 144.
    Bignami, A., and Ralston, H. J., 1968, Brain Res. 11: 710–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 145.
    Berger, B., 1971, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 37: 105–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 146.
    Berger, B., 1971, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 37: 479–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 147.
    Daniel, P. M., and Strich, S. J., 1969, Acta Neuropathol. 12: 314–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 148.
    Shute, C. C., and Lewis, P. R., 1961, Bibl. Anat. 2: 34–49.Google Scholar
  151. 149.
    Roessmann, U., and Friede, R. L., 1965, Exp. Neurol. 12: 230–237.Google Scholar
  152. 150.
    Wender, M., Kozik, M., and Mularek, O., 1979, Folia Histochem. Cytochem. 17: 161–168.Google Scholar
  153. 151.
    Wender, M., Kozik, M., and Goncerzewicz, A., and Mularek, O., 1980, J. Hirnforsch. 21:417428.Google Scholar
  154. 152.
    Joseph, B. S., and Whitlock, D. G., 1972, Brain Behay. Evol. 5: 1–17.Google Scholar
  155. 153.
    Parker, G. H., and Paine, V. L., 1934, Am. J. Anat. 54: 1–25.Google Scholar
  156. 154.
    Joseph, B. S., 1973, Brain Res. 59: 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 155.
    Gamble, H. J., and Jha, B. D., 1958, J. Anat. 92: 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 156.
    Bachelard, H. S., and Silva, G. D., 1966, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 117: 98–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 157.
    Mönckeberg, G., and Bethe, A., 1899, Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 54: 135–183.Google Scholar
  160. 158.
    Merzbacher, L., 1903, Arch. Ges. Physiol. Mensch. Tier. 100: 568–585.Google Scholar
  161. 159.
    Torrey, T. W., 1934, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 20: 303–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 160.
    Gamble, H. J., Goldby, F., and Smith, G. M. R., 1957, Nature 179: 527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 161.
    Rossiter, R. J., 1961, Chemical Pathology of the Nervous System (J. Folch-Pi, ed.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 207–230.Google Scholar
  164. 162.
    Johnson, A. C., McNabb, A. R., and Rossiter, R. J., 1949, Biochem. J. 45: 500–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 163.
    Berry, J. F., Cevallos, W. H., and Wade, R. R., 1965, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 42: 492–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 164.
    Abercrombie, M., and Johnson, M. L., 1946, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 9: 113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 165.
    McCaman, R. E., and Robins, E., 1959, J. Neurochem. 5: 18–31.Google Scholar
  168. 166.
    Mellick, R. S., and Cavanagh, J. B., 1968, Brain 91: 141–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 167.
    Koeppen, A. H., Papandrea, J. D., and Mitzen, E. J., 1979, Muscle Nerve 2: 369–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 168.
    Wood, J. G., and Dawson, M. C., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22: 631–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 169.
    Johnson, A. C., McNabb, A. R., and Rossiter, R. J., 1948, Biochem. J. 43: 578–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 170.
    Laatsch, R. H., Kies, M. W., Gordon, S., and Alvord, E. C., 1962, J. Exp. Med. 115: 777–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 171.
    O’Brien, J. S., Sampson, E. L., and Stern, M. B., 1967, J. Neurochem. 14: 357–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 172.
    IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature, 1977, Lipids 12: 455–468.Google Scholar
  175. 173.
    Brante, G., 1949, Acta Physiol. Scand. 18 (Suppl. 63): 7–189.Google Scholar
  176. 174.
    Curri, S. B., and Stefani, M., 1964, Riv. Anat. Patol. Oncol. 26: 451–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 175.
    Oppelt, W. W., Cornatzer, W. E., and Ederstrom, H. E., 1959, Neurology (Minneap.) 9: 184–186.Google Scholar
  178. 176.
    Klein, F., 1980, Biochimie 62: 181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 177.
    Koeppen, A. H., Papandrea, J. D., and Mitzen, E. J., 1982, J. Neurochem. 39: 1017–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 178.
    Hofteig, J. H., Vo, P. N., and Yates, A. J., 1981, Acta Neuropathol. 55: 151–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 179.
    Natarajan, V., Yao, J. K., Dyck, P. J., and Schmidt, H. H. O., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38: 1419–1428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 180.
    Saito, T., 1980, Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clin. Neurol.) 20: 555–563.Google Scholar
  183. 181.
    Belin, J., and Smith, A. D., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27: 969–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 182.
    Mezei, C., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 1163–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 183.
    Yahara, S., Kawamura, N., Kishimoto, Y., Saida, T., and Tourtelotte, W. W., 1982, J. Neurol. Sci. 54: 303–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 184.
    Yates, A. J., and Thompson, D. K., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 1649–1651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 185.
    Hofteig, J. H., Vo, P. N., Yates, A. J., and Leon, K. S., 1982, J. Neurochem. 39: 401–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 186.
    Gardiner, R. J., Oliver, G. L., and Rossiter, R. J., 1966, Proc. Can. Fed. Biol. Sci. 9: 23–24.Google Scholar
  189. 187.
    Domonkos, H., and Heiner, L., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 188.
    Domonkos, J., and Heiner, L., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 189.
    Simon, G., 1966, Lipids 1: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 190.
    Yao, J. K., and Dyck, P. J., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 156–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 191.
    Rawlins, F., and Smith, M. E., 1971, Neurobiology 1: 225–231.Google Scholar
  194. 192.
    Patsalos, P. N., Bell, M. E., and Wiggins, R. C., 1980, J. Cell Biol. 87: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 193.
    Peterson, R. G., Baughman, S., and Scheidler, D. M., 1981, Neurochem. Res. 6: 213–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 194.
    Bell, M. E., Peterson, R. G., and Wiggins, R. C., 1982, Neurochem. Res. 7: 99–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 195.
    Yates, A. J., Tipnis, U. R., Hofteig, J. H.. Markowitz, D. L., and Thompson, D. K., 1982, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 13: 223.Google Scholar
  198. 196.
    Yao, J. K., Natarajan, V., and Dyck, P. J., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35: 933–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 197.
    Porcellati, G., and Curti, B., 1960, J. Neurochem. 5: 277–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 198.
    Soifer, D., Iqbal, K., Czosnek, H., de Martini, J., Sturman, J. A., and Wisniewski, H., 1981, J. Neurosci. 1: 461–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 199.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., and Hasler, M. B., 1979, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 38: 242–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 200.
    McDermott, J. R., and Wisniewski, H. M., 1977, J. Neurol. Sci. 33: 81–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 201.
    Micko, S., and Schlaepfer, W. W., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 1041–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 202.
    Adams, C. W. M., Csejtey, J., Hallpike, J. F., and Bayliss, O. B., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 2043–2048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 203.
    Luttges, M. W., Kelly, P. T., and Gerren, R. A., 1976, Exp. Neurol. 50: 706–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 204.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., and Micko, S., 1978, J. Cell Biol. 78: 369–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 205.
    DeVries, G. H., Norton, W. T., and Raine, C. S., 1972, Science 175: 1370–1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 206.
    Perez, V. J., and Moore, B. W., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 971–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 207.
    Perez, V. J., Olney, J. W., Cicero, T. J., Moore, B. W., and Bahn, B. A., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 511–519.Google Scholar
  210. a.Bock, E., and Dissing, J., 1975, Scand. J. Immunol. 4 (Suppl. 2): 31–36.Google Scholar
  211. b.Bock, E., Fletcher, L., Rider, C. C., and Taylor, C. B., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 181–185.Google Scholar
  212. c.Kato, K., and Satoh, T., 1983, J. Neurochem. 40: 1076–1081.Google Scholar
  213. 208.
    Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes, 1979, Enzyme Nomenclature 1978, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  214. 209.
    Heinzen, B., 1947, Anat. Rec. 98: 193–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 210.
    Hollinger, D. M., Rossiter, R. J., and Upmalis, H., 1952, Biochem. J. 52: 652–659.Google Scholar
  216. 211.
    McCaman, R. E., and Robins, E., 1959, J. Neurochem. 5: 32–42.Google Scholar
  217. 212.
    Weissbarth, S., Song, S. K., Frank, O., Anderson, P. J., and Sobotka, H., 1961, J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 38: 361–365.Google Scholar
  218. 213.
    Mezei, C., Mezei, M., and Hawkins, A., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22: 457–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 214.
    Lumsden, C. E., 1952, Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 37: 45–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 215.
    Cavanagh, J. B., and Webster, G. R., 1955, J. Exp. Physiol. Cog. Med. Sci. 40: 12–23.Google Scholar
  221. 216.
    Sawyer, C. H., 1946, Am. J. Physiol. 146: 246–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 217.
    Sawyer, C. H., and Hollinshead, W. H., 1945, J. Neurophysiol. 8: 137–153.Google Scholar
  223. 218.
    Cavanagh, J. B., Thompson, R. H. S., and Webster, G. R., 1954, Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 39: 185–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 219.
    Ranish, N. A., and Dettbarn, W.-D., 1978, Exp. Neurol. 58: 377–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 220.
    Hollinger, D. M.. and Rossiter, R. J., 1952, Biochem. J. 52: 659–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 221.
    Porcellati, G., 1970, Protein Metabolism of the Nervous System (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 601–620.Google Scholar
  227. 222.
    Gueuning, C., Graff, G. L. A., and Mahler-Rabinovitch A.. 1971, C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 165: 2455–2459.Google Scholar
  228. 223.
    Bonavita, V., Amore, G., and Smorto, M., 1969, Acta Neurol. (Napoli) 24: 125–130.Google Scholar
  229. 224.
    Gabbay, K. H., and O’Sullivan, J. B., 1968, Diabetes 17: 239–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 225.
    Berry, J. F., and Rossiter, R. J., 1958, J. Neurochem. 3: 59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 226.
    Nachmansohn, D., John, H. M., and Berman, M., 1946, J. Biol. Chem. 163: 475–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 227.
    Berry, J. F., McPherson, C. F., and Rossiter, R. J., 1958, J. Neurochem. 3: 65–71.Google Scholar
  233. 228.
    McCaman, R. E., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 672–676.Google Scholar
  234. 229.
    Porcellati, G., and Arienti, G., 1970, Brain Res. 19: 451–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 230.
    McCaman, R. E., and Cook, K., 1966, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 3390–3394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 231.
    Webster, G. R., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21: 873–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 232.
    McCaman, R. E., Smith, M., and Cook, K., 1965, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 3513–3517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 233.
    Lubinska, L., 1964, Mechanism of Neural Regeneration (M. Singer and J. P. Schadé, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1–71.Google Scholar
  239. 234.
    Hellauer, H., and Umrath, K., 1939, Z. Biol. 99: 624–632.Google Scholar
  240. 235.
    Boell, E. J., 1945, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 25: 75–84.Google Scholar
  241. 236.
    Lissak, K., Dempsey, E. W., and Rosenblueth, A., 1939, Am. J. Physiol. 128: 45–56.Google Scholar
  242. 237.
    Maclntosh, F. C., 1941, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 99: 436–442.Google Scholar
  243. 238.
    Feldberg, W., 1943, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 101: 432–445.Google Scholar
  244. 239.
    von Murait, A., and von Schulthess, G., 1944, Hely. Physiol. Acta 2: 435–443.Google Scholar
  245. 240.
    Hebb, C. O., and Waites, G. M. H., 1956, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 132: 667–671.Google Scholar
  246. 241.
    Lubinska, L., Niemierko, S., Oderfeld-Nowak, B., and Swarcz, L., 1964, J. Neurochem. 11: 493–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 242.
    Hebb, C. O., and Silver, A., 1961, Nature 189: 123–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 243.
    Logan, J. E., Mannell, W. A., and Rossiter, R. J., 1952, Biochem. J. 51: 482–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 244.
    Oderfeld-Nowak, B., and Niemerko, S., 1969, J. Neurochem. 16: 235–248.Google Scholar
  250. 245.
    Seiler, N., and Schröder, J. M., 1970, Brain Res. 22: 81–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 246.
    Causey, G., and Stratmann, C. J., 1956, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) [Biol.] 144: 520–527.Google Scholar
  252. 247.
    Yates, A. J., Vo, P. N., and Leon, K. S., 1981, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 12: 192.Google Scholar
  253. 248.
    Scholte, W., Wolburg, H., and Wendt-Gallitelli, M. F., 1981, Acta Neuropathol. [Suppl.] 7: 31–35.Google Scholar
  254. 249.
    Appenzeller, O., and Palmer, G., 1972, Brain Res. 42: 521–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 250.
    McDonald, S. M., Mezei, M., and Mezei, C., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 9–16.Google Scholar
  256. 251.
    Kusama, H., and Stewart, M. A., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 317–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 252.
    Bignami, A., and Eng, L. F., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20: 165–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 253.
    Wender, M., Adamczewska-Goncerzewicz, Z., and Goncerzewicz, A., 1979, Exp. Pathol. 17: 334–339.Google Scholar
  259. 254.
    Reigner, J., Matthieu, J.-M., Kraus-Ruppert, R., Lassmann, H., and Poduslo, J. F., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 1986–1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 255.
    Hirose, G., and Bass, N. H., 1974, Exp. Neurol. 44: 82–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 256.
    Kondo, T., 1979, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 83: 420–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 257.
    Wender, M., Kozik, M., Adamczewska-Goncerzewicz, Z., and Goncerzewicz, A., 1981, Acta Neuropathol. [Suppl.] 7: 36–39.Google Scholar
  263. 258.
    Dahl, D., and Bignami, A., 1975, FEBS Lett. 51: 313–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 259.
    Dahl, D., Crosby, C. J., and Bignami, A., 1981, Exp. Neurol. 71: 421–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 260.
    Dahl, D., Bignami, A., Weber, K., and Osborn, M.. 1981, Exp. Neurol. 73: 496–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 261.
    Anderton, B. H., Ayers, M., and Thorpe, R., 1978, FEBS Lett. 96: 159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 262.
    Franke, W. W., Schmid, E., Osborn, M., and Weber, K., 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75: 5034–5038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 263.
    Porcellati, G., 1965, Farm. Ed. Sci. 20: 586–605.Google Scholar
  269. 264.
    Benjamins, J. A., Guarnieri, M., Miller, K., Sonneborn, M., and McKhann, G. M., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23: 751–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 265.
    Magnusson, T., and Rosengren, E., 1963, Experientia 19: 229–230.Google Scholar
  271. 266.
    Carlsson, A., Magnusson, T., and Rosengren, E., 1963, Erperientia 19: 359.Google Scholar
  272. 267.
    Majno, G., and Karnovsky, M. L., 1958, J. Exp. Med. 107: 475–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 268.
    Gerard, R. W., 1927, Am. J. Physiol. 82: 381–404.Google Scholar
  274. 269.
    Greengard, P., Brink, F., and Colowick, S. P., 1954, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 44: 395–420.Google Scholar
  275. 270.
    Majno, G., and Karnovsky, M. L., 1958, J. Exp. Med. 108: 197–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 271.
    Stewart, M. A., Passoneau, J. V., and Lowry, O. H., 1965, J. Neurochem. 12: 719–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 272.
    Magee, W. L., Berry, J. F., Magee, M., and Rossiter, R. J., 1959, J. Neurochem. 3: 333–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 273.
    Nageotte, J., 1910, C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 69: 556–559.Google Scholar
  279. 274.
    Gutmann, E., and Holubar, J., 1950, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 13: 89–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 275.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., and Bunge, R. P., 1973, J. Cell Biol. 59: 456–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 276.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., 1974, Brain Res. 78: 71–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 277.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., and Micko, S., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32: 211–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 278.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., Zimmerman, U.-J. P., and Micko, S., 1981, Cell Calcium 2: 235–250.Google Scholar
  284. 279.
    Domonkos, J., 1972, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 7 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 93–106.Google Scholar
  285. 280.
    Magee, W. L., and Rossiter, R. J., 1954, Biochem. J. 58: 243–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 281.
    Miani, N., 1962, J. Neurochem. 9: 525–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 282.
    Gueuning, C., Dictus-Vermeulen, C., and Graff, G. L. A., 1977, Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 85: 67–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 283.
    Rossiter, R. J., McLeod, I. M., and Strickland, K. P., 1957, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 35: 945–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 284.
    Yao, J. K., and Cannon, K. P., 1982, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 13: 148.Google Scholar
  290. 285.
    Pritchard, E. T., and Rossiter, R. J., 1959, J. Neurochem. 3: 341–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 286.
    Kline, D., Magee, W. L., Pritchard, E. T., and Rossiter, R. J., 1958, J. Neurochem. 3: 52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 287.
    Berry, J. F., and Coonrad, J. D., 1967, J. Neurochem. 14: 245–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 288.
    Porcellati, G., 1958, J. Neurochem. 2: 128–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 289.
    Porcellati, G., 1967, Prog. Biochem. Pharmacol. 3: 49–58.Google Scholar
  295. 290.
    Porcellati, G., 1972, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 7 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 191–219.Google Scholar
  296. 291.
    Yamaguchi, M., Yanos, T., Yamaguchi, T., and Lajtha, A., 1970, J. Neurobiol. 1: 419–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 292.
    Takahashi, Y., Nomura, M., and Furusawa, S., 1961, J. Neurochem. 7: 97–102.Google Scholar
  298. 293.
    Buse, M. G., Herlong, H. F., Weigand, D. A., and Spicer, S. S., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27: 1339–1345.Google Scholar
  299. 294.
    Muirhead, P. D., and Mezei, C., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21: 147–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 295.
    Friede, R. L., and Johnstone, M. A., 1967, Acta Neuropathol. 7: 218–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 296.
    Bradley, W. G., and Asbury, A. K., 1970, Exp. Neurol. 26: 275–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 297.
    Gueuning, C., and Graff, G. L. A., 1974, Biomédicine 20: 425–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 298.
    Karnovsky, M. L., and Majno, G., 1961, Chemical Pathology of the Nervous System (J. Folch-Pi, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 261–266.Google Scholar
  304. 299.
    Schlaepfer, W. W., and Zimmerman, U.-J. P. 1981, Neurochem. Res. 6: 243–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnulf H. Koeppen
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurology Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, and Department of NeurologyAlbany Medical CollegeAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations