What is an Extrovert? They are More Than They Seem!

  • John C. Mowen


Two studies were conducted that investigated the construct of extraversion and its relationship to the 3M model. The results revealed that extraversion, as operationalized by Saucier (1994) and Eysenck and Eysenck (1985), is a compound level trait. The 3M Model traits predictive of the Saucier measure were: introversion, the need for arousal, emotional stability, and the need for activity. Traits predictive of the Eysenck’s measure were: introversion, the need for arousal, and agreeability. In each instance over 50 percent of the variance in the measures of extraversion was accounted for. Study 2 also began the process of developing a measure of the need for social resources. The sixitem scale had high internal reliability and was found to represent a compound level trait. Results are discussed in terms of the need to compare the measurement properties of several extraversion measures in a single study. The goal is to develop a theory that explains the sources of and the effects of extraversion.


Exploratory Factor Analysis Coefficient Alpha Social Resource Emotional Stability Sensation Seek 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Mowen
    • 1
  1. 1.Oklahoma State UniversityUSA

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