Functional ingredients

  • Tony Williams
  • Gordon Pullen


The most basic bread dough one might use to produce a baked product would of necessity contain the following minimum ingredients: flour, water, yeast and salt. However, even those most skilled in the art of baking would agree that at the very least it would be difficult to make bread of a high, consistent quality from only these raw materials. The baker has always, where expedient, added small amounts of extra ingredients to enhance dough performance during processing or to improve the quality of finished bread. In the past these materials would usually be foodstuffs in their own right, such as fat, sugars, honey and malt flour. Although the principal benefits were probably considered to be related to the eating properties of the final baked article, it must have become apparent that it was possible to produce modifications to the dough itself during processing which might be equally beneficial in the finished product.


Data Ester Functional Ingredient Bread Quality Bread Dough Potassium Bromate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. The Bread and Flour Regulations, UK SI1304 (1984) HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  2. The Bread and Flour Regulations, UK SI3202 (1996) HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  3. Cauvain, S.P. (1985) Effects of some enzymes on loaf volume in the CBP. FMBRA Bulletin, No. 1, February, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK, pp. 11–17.Google Scholar
  4. Cauvain, S.P. and Chamberlain, N. (1988) The bread improving effect of fungal alpha-amylase. Journal of Cereal Science, 8, Nov., 239–48.Google Scholar
  5. Cauvain, S.P., Davies, J.A.D. and Feam, T. (1985) Flour characteristics and fungal alpha-amylase in the Chorleywood Bread Process. FMBRA Report No. 121, March, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK.Google Scholar
  6. Chamberlain, N. (1979) Gases — the neglected ingredient, in Proceedings of the 49th Conference of the British Society of Baking, pp. 12–17.Google Scholar
  7. Chamberlain, N., Collins, T.H. and Elton, G.A.H. (1965) The Chorleywood Bread Process: improving effects of fat. Cereal Science Today, 10 (8).Google Scholar
  8. Chamberlain, N., Collins, T.H. and McDermott, E.E. (1977) The Chorleywood Bread Process: the effects of alpha-amylase activity on commercial bread. FMBRA Report No. 73, June, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Collins, T.H. (1978) The French baguette and pain Parisien. FMBRA Bulletin, April, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, pp. 107–16.Google Scholar
  10. Collins, T.H. (1994) Mixing, moulding and processing of bread doughs in the UK, in Breeding to Baking, Proceedings of an International Conference at FMBRA, Chorleywood, 15–16 June, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, pp. 77–83.Google Scholar
  11. Collins, T.H. and Haley, S. (1992) Frozen bread doughs: effect of ascorbic acid addition and dough mixing temperature on loaf properties. FMBRA Digest 114, February, CCFRA, Chipping Campden, pp. 21–3.Google Scholar
  12. Farrand, E.A. (1964) Flour properties in relation to modern breadmaking processes in the United Kingdom, with special reference to alpha-amylase and damaged starch. Cereal Chemistry, 41, March, 98–111.Google Scholar
  13. Frazier, P.J., Leigh-Dugmore, F.A., Daniels, N.W.R. et al. (1973) The effect of lipoxygenase action on the mechanical development of wheat flour doughs. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 24 (4), 421–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Miller, B.S., Johnson, J.A. and Palmer, D.L. (1953) A comparison of cereal, fungal and bacterial alpha-amylase as supplements in breadmaking. Food Technology, 7, 38.Google Scholar
  15. The Miscellaneous Food Additive Regulations, UK SI3187 (1995) HMSO, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony Williams
  • Gordon Pullen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations