Disorders of Sodium and Potassium

  • Flávio E. Nácul


Sodium is the major extracellular ion and has many important body functions such as regulation of plasma osmolality, participation in chemical reactions, and maintenance of neuromuscular excitability. Serum sodium concentration is the most important determinant of plasma osmolality (1), which normally remains within a narrow range of 285 to 295 mOsm/kg. An increase in total body water (TBW) decreases both serum osmolality and vasopressin levels, while a decrease in TBW increases serum osmolality and vasopressin levels.


Diabetes Insipidus Total Body Water Plasma Osmolality Serum Osmolality Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Flávio E. Nácul
    • 1
  1. 1.Lahey Clinic Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA

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