Hemodialysis, Ultrafiltration, and Hemofiltration

  • Raymond C. Vanholder
  • Ann A. Van Loo
  • Severin M. Ringoir


The treatment of end-stage renal failure by extracorporeal circulatory support is a well-recognized and widely practiced therapeutic option. If this option is not applied, a progressive deterioration of clinical condition will finally result in undernourishment, enhanced morbidity, coma, and death; these events are largely attributed to the accumulation of uremic retention solutes that in health are eliminated by the functioning kidneys. Hemodialysis and related strategies (hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration) are today the most widely used methods of extracorporeal circulatory support in end-stage renal failure; a number of improvements have been made over the past decades by the introduction of more biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate buffering of the dialysis fluid, measures to estimate and to improve the adequacy of dialysis, and the availability of various alternative access methods.


Hippuric Acid Uremic Toxin Dialysis Fluid Substitution Fluid Conventional Hemodialysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hegstrom RM, Quinton WE, Dillard DH, Cole JJ, Scribner BH: One year’s experience with the use of indwelling teflon cannulas and bypass. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 7: 47, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shaldon S, Chiandussi L, Higgs B: Haemodialysis by percutaneous catheterisation of the femoral artery and vein with regional heparinisation. Lancet 2: 857, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shaldon S, Rae AI, Rosen SM, Silva H, Oakley J: Refrigerated femoral venous—venous haemodialysis with coil preservation for rehabilitation of terminal uraemic patients. Lancet 1: 1716, 1963.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fuchs HJ, Jenett G, Klehr V, Richter G, Wilbrandt R, Frotscher U: Die perkutane Punktion der Vena Femoralis zur Hamodialysebehandlung. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 102: 1280, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bambauer R, Jutzler GA: Jugularis-Interna-Punktion zur Shaldon-Ka theterisierung. Ein neuer Zugang fur akute Hämodialysen. Nieren Hoch druckkrankheiten 3: 109, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Uldall PR, Dyck RF, Woods F, Merchant N, Martin GS, Cardella CJ, Sutton D, Deveber GA: A subclavian cannula for temporary vascular access for hemodialysis or plasmapheresis. Dial Transplant 8: 963, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Cubber A, De Wolf C, Lameire N, Schurgers M, Ringoir S: Single needle hemodialysis with the double headpump via the subclavian vein. Dial Transplant 7: 1261, 1978.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vanholder R, Lameire N, Verbanck J, Van Rattinghe R, Kunnen H, Ringoir S: Complications of subclavian hemodialysis: a 5 year prospective study in 257 consecutive patients. Int J Artif Organs 5: 297, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vanholder R, Hoenich N, Ringoir S: Morbidity and mortality of central venous catheter hemodialysis: a review of 10 years’ experience. Nephron 47: 274, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fine A, Churchill D, Gault H, Mathieson G: Fatality due to subclavian dialysis catheter. Nephron 29: 99, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Merrill RH, Raab SO: Dialysis catheter-induced pericardial tamponade. Arch Intern Med 142: 1751, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barton BR, Hermann G, Weill R: Cardiothoracic emergencies associated with subclavian hemodialysis catheters. JAMA 250: 2660, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vaziri ND, Maksy M, Lewis M, Martin D, Edwards K: Massive mediastinal hematoma caused by a double-lumen subclavian catheter. Artif Organs 8: 223, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ducatman BS, Mac Michan JC, Edwards MD: Catheter-induced lesions of the right side of the heart. A one year prospective study of 141 autopsies. JAMA 253: 791, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ratcliffe PJ, Oliver DO: Massive thrombosis around subclavian cannulas used for hemodialysis. Lancet 1: 1472, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cheung AK, Gregory MC: Subclavian vein thrombosis in hemodialysis patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 31: 131, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vanherweghem JL, Yassine T, Goldman M, Vandenbosch G, Delcour C, Struyven J, Kinnaert P: Subclavian vein thrombosis: a frequent complication of subclavian vein cannulation for hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 26: 235, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spinowitz BS, Galler MG, Golden RA, Rascoff JH, Schechter L, Held B, Charytan C: Subclavian vein stenosis as a complication of subclavian catheterization for hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 147: 305, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schwab SJ, Quarles D, Middleton JP, Cohan RH, Saeed M, Dennis V: Hemodialysis-associated subclavian vein stenosis. Kidney Int 33: 1156, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Moor B, Vanholder R, Ringoir S: Subclavian vein hemodialysis catheters: advantages and disadvantages. Artif Organs 18: 293, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Uldall PR, Joy C, Merchant N: Further experience with double lumen subclavian cannula for hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 28: 71, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brescia MJ, Cimino JE, Appel K, Hurwich BJ: Chronic hemodialysls using venipuncture and a surgically created arteriovenous fistula. N Engl J Med 275: 1089, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tellis VA, Kohnberg WJ, Bhat DJ, Driscoll B, Veith FJ: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis. Ann Surg 189: 101, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Knutson R, Wathen R, Comty CM, Shapiro FL: Bovine carotid artery grafts as blood access devices. Proc EDTA 10: 229, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zerbino VR, Tice DA: Successful use of preserved allograft vein for chronic hemodialysis. Nephron 10: 61, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mahan JD, Mauer SM, Nevins TE: The Hickman catheter: a new hemodialysis access device for infants and small children. Kidney Int 24: 694, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    De Meester J, Vanholder R, De Roose J, Ringoir S: Catheter and technique survival with permanent single-lumen dialysis catheters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9: 478, 1994.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Garred LJ, St Amour N, McCready W, Canaud B: Urea Kinetic modeling with a prototype urea sensor in the spent dialysate stream. Abstracts of the 1993 ASAIO Meeting, p 80 1993.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ebben JP, Hirsch DN, Luehmann DA, Collins AJ, Keshaviah PR: Microbiologic contamination of liquid bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 33: 269, 1987.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Laude-Sharp M, Caroff M, Simard L, Pusineri C, Kazatchkine MD, Haeffner-Cavaillon N: Induction of IL-1 during hemodialysis: transmembrane passage of intact endotoxins (LPS). Kidney Int 38: 1089, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bolon G, Reingold AL, Carson LA, Solcox VA, Woodley CL, Hayes PS, Hightower AW, McFarland L, Brown JW, Petersen NJ, Favero MS, Good RC, Broome CV: Infections with Mycobacterium chelonei in patients receiving dialysis and using processed hemodialyzers. J Infect Dis 152: 1013, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gordon SM, Tipple M, Jarvis WR: Pyrogenic reactions associated with the reuse of disposable hollow-fiber hemodialyzers. JAMA 260: 2077, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bommer J, Ritz E: Water quality-a neglected problem in hemodialysis. Nephron 46: 1, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wehle B, Asaba H, Castenfors J, Fürst P, Grahn A, Gunnarson B, Shaldon S, Bergström J: The influence of dialysis fluid composition on the blood pressure response during dialysis. Clin Nephrol 10: 62, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Veech RL: The untoward effects of the anions of dialysis fluids. Kidney Int 34: 587, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mion CM, Hegstrom RM, Boen ST, Scribner BH: Substitution of sodium acetate for sodium bicarbonate in the bath fluid for hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 10: 110, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Graefe U, Milutinovich J, Follette WC, Vizzo JE, Babb AL, Scribner BH: Less dialysis-induced morbidity and vascular instability with bicarbonate in dialysate. Ann Intern Med 88: 332, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aizawa Y, Ohmori T, Imai K, Nara Y, Matsuoka M, Hirasawa Y: Depressant action of acetate upon the human cardiovascular system. Clin Nephrol 8: 477, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leenen FHH, Buda AJ, Smith DL, Farrel S, Levine DZ, Uldall PR: Hemodynamic changes during acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis. Artif Organs 8: 411, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Borges HF, Fryd DS, Rosa AA, Kjellstrand CM: Hypotension during acetate and bicarbonate dialysis in patients with acute renal failure. Am J Nephrol 1: 24, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vanholder R, Piron M, Ringoir S: Absence of a beneficial hemodynamic effect of bicarbonate versus acetate haemodialysis. Proc EDTA-ERA 21: 195, 1984.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dolan MJ, Whipp BJ, Davidson WD, Weitzman RE, Wasserman K: Hypopnea associated with acetate hemodialysis: carbondioxide flow-dependent ventilation. N Engl J Med 305: 72, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    De Backer WA, Verpooten GA, Borgonjon DJ, Vermeire PA, Lins RR, De Broe ME: Hypoxemia during hemodialysis: effects of different membranes and dialysate compositions. Kidney Int 23: 738, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    De Backer WA, Heyrman RM, Wittesaele WM, Van Waeleghem JP, Vermeire PA, De Broe ME: Ventilation and breathing patterns during hemodialysis-induced carbon dioxide unloading. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 406, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Novello AC, Kjellstrand CM: Is bicarbonate dialysis better than acetate dialysis. ASAIO J 6: 103, 1983.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Morin RJ, Srikantaiah MV, Woodley Z, Davidson WD: Effect of hemodialysis with acetate vs. bicarbonate on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in uremic patients. J Dial 4: 9, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bergström J, Asaba H, Fürst P, Oules R: Dialysis, ultrafiltration and blood pressure. Proc EDTA 13: 293, 1976.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pallone TL, Petersen J: Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration: an in vitro simulation and mathematical model. Kidney Int 33: 685, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Baldamus CA, Pollok M: Ultrafiltration and hemofiltration: practical applications. In: JF Maher, ed, Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 327–346, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Henderson LW, Livoti LG, Ford CA, Kelly AB, Lysaght MJ: Clinical experience with intermittent hemofiltration. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 19: 119, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Brunner FP, Broyer M, Brynger H, Challah S, Fassbinder W, Oules R, Rizzoni G, Selwood NH, Wing AJ: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation in Europe, XV, 1984. Proc EDTA 22: 5, 1985.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Raine AEG, Margreiter R, Brunner FP, Ehrich JHH, Geerlings W, Landais P, Loirat C, Mallick NP, Selwood NH, Tufveson G, Valderrabano F: Report on management of renal failure in Europe, XXII, 1991. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2: 7, 1992.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bosch JP, Lauer A, Glabman S: Mortality and morbidity associated with hemofiltration. ASAIO J 8: 28, 1985.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Collins AJ, Keshaviah P, Ilstrup KM, Shapiro F: Clinical comparison of hemodialysis and hemofiltration. Kidney Int 28: S18, 1985.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hakim M, Wheeldon D, Bethune DW, Milstein BB, English TAH, Wallwork J: Haemodialysis and haemofiltration on cardiopulmonary bypass. Thorax 40: 101, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Canaud B, Nguyen QV, Argiles A, Polito C, Polaschegg HD, Mion C: Hemodiafiltration using dialysate as substitution fluid. Artif Organs 11: 188, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vanholder RC, De Smet RV, Ringoir SM: Assessment of urea and other uremic markers for quantification of dialysis efficacy. Clin Chem 38: 1429, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Albertazzi A, Palmieri PF, Mastrangelo E: Efficacy and tol-erance of acetate free biofiltration: a central Italian multicenter study. Kidney Int 43: S188, 1993.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Botella J, Ghezzi P, Sanz-Moreno C, Milan M, Conz P, La Greca G, Ronco C: Multicentric study on paired filtration dialysis as a short, highly efficient dialysis technique. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 715, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sigler MH, Teehan BP: Solute transport in continuous hemodialysis: a new treatment for acute renal failure. Kidney Int 32: 562, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tam PYW, Huraib S, Mahan B, LeBlanc D, Lunski CA, Holtzer C, Doyle CE, Vas SI, Uldall PR: Slow continuous hemodialysis for the management of complicated acute renal failure in an intensive care unit. Clin Nephrol 30: 79, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kambic HE, Nosé Y: Plasmapheresis: historical perspective, therapeutic applications, and new frontiers. Artif Organs 17: 850, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yatzidis H, Yulis G, Digenis P: Hemocarboperfusionhemodialysis treatment in terminal renal failure. Kidney Int 10: 5312, 1976.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kopp KF, Gutch CF, Kolff WJ: Single needle dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18: 75 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Beretta-Piccoli C, Golder S, Weidmann P, Descoeudres C: Einnadelhämodialyse. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 105: 289, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Van Waeleghem JP, Boone L, Ringoir S: New technique on the one needle system during haemodialysis. Eur Dial Transplant Nurses Assoc 1: 10, 1973.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vanholder R, Hoenich NA, Ringoir S: Adequacy studies of fistula single needle dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 10: 417, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Vanholder R, Hoenich N, Piron M, Billiouw JM, Ringoir S: Haemodialysis in a single and a two needle vascular access system: a comparative study. Proc EDTA 20: 176, 1983.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Knochel JP: Pathogenesis of the uremic syndrome. Postgrad Med 64: 88, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Teschan PE: The presentation of the patient with chronic renal failure. In: WJ Stone, PL Rabin, eds, End Stage Renal Disease. Academic Press, New York, pp 31–56, 1983.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vanholder R, Schoots A, Ringoir S: Uraemic toxicity. In: JF Maher, ed, Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 4–19, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ritchey EE, Wallin JD, Sham SV: Chemiluminescence and superoxide anion production by leucocytes from chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 19: 349, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nguyen AT, Lethias C, Zingraff J, Herbelin A, Naret C, Descamps-Latscha B: Hemodialysis membrane-induced activation of phagocyte oxidative metabolism detected in vivo and in vitro within microamounts of whole blood. Kidney Int 28: 158, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ringoir S, Van Looy L, Van de Heyning P, Leroux-Roels G: Impairment of phagocytic activity of macrophages as studied by the skin window test in patients on regular hemodialysis treatment. Clin Nephrol 4: 234, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vanholder R, Ringoir S, Dhondt A, Hakim R: Phagocytosis in uremic and hemodialysis patients: a prospective and cross sectional study. Kidney Int 39: 320, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ota K, Sanaka T, Agishi T, Nakajima O: Influence of uremic middle molecules on blood cells. Artif Organs 4: 113, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wallner SF, Vautrin RM: The anemia of chronic renal failure: studies of the effect of organic solvent extraction of serum. J Lab Clin Med 92: 363, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Meytes D, Bogin E, Ma A, Dukes PP, Massry SG: Effect of parathyroid hormone on erythropoiesis. J Clin Invest 67: 1263, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Delwiche F, Segal GM, Eschbach JW, Adamson JW: Hematopoietic inhibitors in chronic renal failure: lack of in vitro specifity. Kidney Int 29: 641, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bogin E, Massry SG, Levi J, Djaldetti M, Bristol G, Smith J: Effect of parathyroid hormone on osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes. J Clin Invest 69: 1017, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Malachi T, Bogin E, Gafter U, Levi J: Parathyroid hormone effect on the fragility of human young and old red blood cells in uremia. Nephron 42: 52, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bogin E, Massry SG, Harary I: Effect of parathyroid hormone on rat heart cells. J Clin Invest 67: 1215, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mann JFE, Jakobs KH, Riedel J, Ritz E: Reduced chronotropic responsiveness of the heart in experimental uremia. Am J Physiol 250 (Heart Circ Physiol 19 ): H846, 1986.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Defronzo RA, Smith D, Alvestrand A: Insulin action in uremia. Kidney Int 24: 5102, 1983.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dzurik R, Spustova V, Gerykova M: Pathogenesis and consequences of the alteration of glucose metabolism in renal insufficiency. In: S Massry, R Vanholder, S Ringoir, eds, Uremic Toxins. Plenum Press, New York, pp 105–109, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lockwood DH, Hayes GR, MacCaleb ML: The insulin-resistance inducing factor associated with uremia. In: S Massry, R Vanholder, S Ringoir, eds, Uremic Toxins. Plenum Press, New York, pp 97–104, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Reidenberg MM, Odar-Cederlof I, Van Bahr C, Borga O, Sjoqvist F: Protein binding of diphenylhydantoin and desmethylimipramine in plasma from patients with poor renal function. N Engl J Med 285: 264, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Depner TA, Gulyassy PF: Plasma protein binding in uremia: extraction and characterisation of an inhibitor. Kidney Int 18: 86, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gulyassy PF, Bottini AT, Stanfel LA, Jarrard EA, Depner TA: Isolation and chemical identification of inhibitors of plasma ligand binding. Kidney Int 30: 391, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mac Namara PJ, Lalka D, Gibaldi M: Endogenous accumulation products and serum protein binding in uremia. J Lab Clin Med 98: 730, 1981.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vanholder R, Van Landschoot N, De Smet R, Schoots A, Ringoir S: Drug protein binding in chronic renal failure: evaluation of nine drugs. Kidney Int 33: 906, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vanholder R, Hoefliger N, De Smet R, Ringoir S: Extraction of protein bound ligands from azotemic sera: comparison of 12 deproteinization methods. Kidney Int 41: 1707, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Funck-Brentano JL, Boudet J, Sausse A, Cueille G, Man NK: In vitro sural nerve test for the evaluation of middle molecule neurotoxicity in uraemia. In: TH Frost, ed, Technical Aspects of Renal Dialysis. Pitman Medical, Tunbridge Wells, U.K., pp 256–263, 1978.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hsu CH, Vanholder R, Patel S, De Smet R, Sandra P, Ringoir SMG: Subfractions of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate inhibit calcitriol metabolism. Kidney Int 40: 868, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hsu CH, Patel SR, Young EW, Vanholder R: Effects of purine derivatives on calcitriol metabolism in rats. Am J Physiol 260: F596, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hsu CH, Patel SR, Vanholder R: Mechanism of decreased intestinal calcitriol receptor concentration in renal failure. Am J Physiol 264: F662, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Abreo K, Sella M, De Smet R, Vogeleere P, Ringoir S: Uremic extracts enhance the uptake and toxicity of aluminum (Al) in cultured mouse hepatocytes (abstract). J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 763, 1993.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schoots AC, Mikkers FEP, Claessens HA, De Smet R, Van Landschoot N, Ringoir S: Characterization of uremic “middle molecular” fractions by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, isotachophoresis and liquid chromatography. Clin Chem 28: 45, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schoots A, Mikkers F, Cramers C, De Smet R, Ringoir S: Uremic toxins and the elusive middle molecules. Nephron 38: 1, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schoots AC, Homan HR, Gladdines MM, Cramers C, De Smet R, Ringoir S: Screening of UV-absorbing solutes in uremic serum by reversed phase HPLC-change of blood levels in different therapies. Clin Chim Acta 146: 37, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schoots A, Vanholder R, De Smet R, Cramers C, Ringoir S: Hippurate and an unknown compound as indicators of residual renal function in dialysed patients. In: LC Smeby, S Jorstad, TE Wideroe, eds, Immune and Metabolic Aspects of Therapeutic Blood Purification Systems. Karger, Basel, pp 240–245, 1986.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sargent JA, Gotch FA: Mathematic modeling of dialysis therapy. Kidney Int 18: 2, 1980.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Scheuer J, Stezoski SW: The effects of uremic compounds on cardiac funtion and metabolism. J Mol Cell Cardiol 5: 287, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Giovannetti S, Balestri PL, Barsotti G: Methylguanidine in uremia. Arch Intern Med 131: 709, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Giovannetti S, Barsotti G: Uremic intoxication. Nephron 14: 123, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Nordal KP, Dahl E: Low dose calcitriol versus placebo in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 5: 929, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Vincent C, Revillard JP, Galland M, Traeger J: Serum beta 2microglobulin in hemodialyzed patients. Nephron 21: 260, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shirahama T, Skinner M, Cohen AS, Gejyo F, Arakawa M, Suzuki M, Hirasawa Y: Histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of amyloid associated with chronic hemodialysis as beta 2-microglobulin. Lab Invest 53: 705, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gejyo F, Odani S, Yamada T, Honma N, Saito H, Suzuki Y, Nakagawa U, Kobayashi H, Maruyama Y, Hirasawa Y, Suzuki M, Arakawa M: Beta 2-microglobulin: a new form of amyloid protein associated with chronic hemodialysis. Kidney Int 30: 385, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vandenbroucke JM, Jadoul M, Maldague B, Huaux JP, Noel H, van Ypersele de Strihou C: Possible role of dialysis membrane characteristics in amyloid osteo-arthropathy. Lancet 1: 1210, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Niwa T, Yazawa T, Kodama T, Uehara Y, Maeda K, Yamada K: Efficient removal of albumin-bound furancarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of erythropoiesis, by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 56: 241, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Niwa T, Fujishiro T, Uema K, Tsuzuki T, Tominaga Y, Emoto Y, Miyazaki T, Maeda K: Effect of hemodialysis on plasma levels of vasoactive peptides: endothelin, calcitoningene related peptide and human atrial natriuretic peptide. Nephron 64: 552, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Zimmerman L, Fürst P, Bergstrom J, Jornvall H: A new glycine containing compound with a blocked amino group from uremic body fluids. Clin Nephrol 14:109, 1980.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cueille G: Mise en évidence et évaluation des “moyennes molecules” de la taille de la vitamine B12 présents dans les liquides biologiques de sujets normaux et de patients urémiques. J Chromatogr 146: 55, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cueille G, Man NK, Farges JP, Funck-Brentano JL: Characterization of sub-peak b4.2 middle molecule. Artif Organs 4: 28, 1980.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vanholder R, Ringoir S: Adequacy of dialysis: a critical analysis. Kidney Int 42: 540, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Asaba H, Zimmerman L, Bergstrom J: On drug artifacts in middle molecule analysis. Nephron 39: 73, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Vanholder R, De Smet R, Hsu C, Vogeleere P, Ringoir S: Uremic toxicity: the middle molecule hypothesis revisited. Semin Nephrol,in press.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lowrie EG, Laird NM, Parker TF, Sargent JA: Effect of the hemodialysis prescription on patient morbidity. New Engl J Med 305: 1176, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Vanholder R, Ringoir S: Influence of reuse and of reuse sterilants on the first-use syndrome. Artif Organs 11: 137, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Vanholder R: Biocompatibility issues in hemodialysis. Clin Materials 10: 87, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Vanholder RC, Pauwels RA, Vandenbogaerde JF, Lamont HH, Van Der Straeten ME, Ringoir SM: Cuprophan reuse and intradialytic changes of lung diffusion capacity and blood gasses. Kidney Int 32: 117, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bland L, Alter M, Favero M, Carson L, Cusick L: Hemodialyzer reuse: practices in the United States and implication for infection control. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 31: 556, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sakula A: Formalin asthma in hospital laboratory staff. Lancet 2: 816, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Porter JAH: Acute respiratory distress following formalin inhalation. Lancet 2: 603, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hendrick DJ, Lane DJ: Formalin asthma in hospital staff. Br Med J 1: 607, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lewis KJ, Dewar PJ, Ward MK, Kerr DNS: Formation of anti-N-like antibodies in dialysis patients: effects of different methods of dialyzer rinsing to remove formaldehyde. Clin Nephrol 15: 39, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Koch KM, Frei U, Fassbinder W: Hemolysis and anemia in anti-N-like antibody positive hemodialysis patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 24: 709, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fassbinder W, Koch KM: A specific immunohaemolytic anaemia induced by formaldehyde sterilisation of dialyzers. Contrib Nephrol 36: 51, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Vanholder R, Noens L, De Smet R, Ringoir S: Development of anti-N-like antibodies during formaldehyde reuse in spite of adequate pre-dailysis rinsing. Am J Kidney Dis 11: 477, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Berkseth R, Luehmann D, Mac Micael C, Keshaviah P, Kjellstrand C: Peracetic acid for reuse of hemodialyzers: clinical studies. Trans Am Soc Artif Organs 30: 270, 1984.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Petersen NJ, Carson LA, Doto IL, Aguero SM, Favero MS: Microbiologic evaluation of a new glutaraldehyde-based disinfectant for hemodialysis systems. Trans Am Soc A rtif Intern Organs 28: 287, 1982.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Delmez JA, Weerts CA, Hasamear PD, Windus DW: Severe dialyzer dysfunction undetectable by standard reprocessing validation tests. Kidney Int 36: 478, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rancourt M, Senger K, De Oreo P: Cellulosic membrane induced leukopenia after reprocessing with sodium hypochlorite. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 30: 49, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hoenich NA, Johnston SRD, Woffindin C, Kerr DNS: Haemodialys leucopenia: the role of membrane type and reuse. Contrib Nephrol 37: 120, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hoenich NA, Kerr DNS, Ward MK, Aljama P, Sussman M: Two special properties of polyamylonitrile membrane-suitability for reuse and biocompatibility. Contemp Dial 1: 31, 1984.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gordon SM, Tipple M, Jarvis WR: Pyrogenic reactions associated with the reuse of disposable hollow-fiber hemodialyzers. JAMA 260: 2077, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Vanholder R, Vanhaecke E, Ringoir S: Pseudomonas septicemia due to deficient disinfectant mixing during reuse. Im J Artif Organs 15: 19, 1992.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ringoir S, Vanholder R: An introduction to biocompatibility. Artif Organs 10: 20, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Deppisch R, Schmitt V, Bommer J, Hänsch GM, Ritz E, Rauterberg EW: Fluid phase generation of terminal complement complex as a novel index of bioincompatibility. Kidney Int 37: 696, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Jacob HS, Craddock PR, Hammerschmidt DE, Moldow CF: Complement-induced granulocyte aggregation. An unsuspected mechanism of disease. N Engl J Med 302: 789, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Craddock PR, Fehr J, Dalmasso AP, Brigham KL, Jacob HS: Hemodialysis leukopenia. Pulmonary vascular leukostasis resulting from complement activation by dialyzer cellophane membranes. J Clin Invest 59: 879, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Cheung AK, Baranowski RL, Wayman AL: The role of thromboxane in cuprophane-induced pulmonary hypertension. Kidney Int 32: 1072, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Eiser AR: Pulmonary gas exchange during haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: interaction between respiration and metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis 6: 131, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Nissenson AR, Kraut JA, Shinaberger JA: Dialysis associated hypoxemia. Pathogenesis and prevention. ASAIO J 7:1, 1984.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mahiout A, Meinhold H, Kessel M, Schulze H, Baurmeister U: Dialyzer membranes: effect of surface area and chemical modification of cellulose on complement and platelet activation. Artif Organs 11: 149, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Akizawa T, Kitaoka T, Koshikawa S, Watanabe T, Imamura K, Tsurumi T, Suma Y, Eiga S: Development of a regenerated cellulose non-complement activating membrane for hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 32: 76, 1986.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Himmelfarb J, Lazarus JM, Hakim R: Reactive oxygen species production by monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes during dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 17: 271, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Vanholder R, Ringoir S: Infectious morbidity and defects of phagocytic function in end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 1541, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Vanholder R, Dell’Aquila R, Jacobs V, Dhondt A, Veys N, Waterloos MA, Van Landschoot N, Van Biesen W, Ringoir S: Depressed phagocytosis in hemodialyzed patients: in vivo and in vitro mechanisms. Nephron 63: 409, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hallgren R, Fjellstrom KE, Hakanson L, Venge P: Kinetic studies of phagocytosis II. The serum-independent uptake of IgG-coated particles by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from uremic patients on regular dialysis treatment. J Lab Clin Med 94: 277, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Henderson LW, Miller ME, Hamilton RW, Norman ME: Hemodialysis leukopenia and polymorph random mobility-a possible correlation. J Lab Clin Med 85: 191, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Vanholder R, Van Biesen W, Ringoir S: Contributing factors to the inhibition of phagocytosis in hemodialyzed patients. Kidney Int 44: 208, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lonnemann G, Bingel M, Floege J, Koch KM, Shaldon S, Dinarello CA: Detection of endotoxin-like interleukin-1 in- ducing activity during in vitro dialysis. Kidney Int 33: 29, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Bingel M, Lonnemann G, Koch KM, Dinarello CA, Shaldon S: Plasma interleukin-1 activity during hemodialysis: the influence of dialysis membranes. Nephron 50: 273, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lonnemann G, Koch KM, Shaldon S, Dinarello CA: Studies on the ability of hemodialysis membranes to induce, bind and clear human interleukin-1. J Lab Clin Med 112: 76, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Dinarello CA: Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and their naturally occurring antagonists during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 42: S68, 1992.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Chanard J, Brunois JP, Melin JP, Lavaud S, Toupance O: Longterm results of dialysis therapy with a highly permeable membrane. Artif Organs 6: 261, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kant KS, Pollak VE, Cathey M, Goetz D, Berlin R: Multiple use of dialyzers: safety and efficacy. Kidney Int 19: 728, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Levin NW, Zasuwa G, Dumler F: Effect of membrane type on causes of death in hemodialysis patients (abstract). J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 335, 1991.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hornberger JC, Chernew M, Petersen J, Garber AM: A multivariate analysis of mortality and hospital admissions with high-flux dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 1227, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Schulman G, Fogo A, Gung A, Badr K, Hakim R: Complement activation retards resolution of acute ischemic renal failure in the rat. Kidney Int 40: 1069, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hakim RM, Wingard RL, Lawrence P, Parker RA, Schulman G: Use of biocompatible membranes improves outcome and recovery from acute renal failure (abstract). J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 367, 1992.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Linas SL, Whittenburg D, Parsons P, Repine JE: Mild renal ischemia activates primed neutrophils to cause acute renal failure. Kidney Int 42: 610, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Guitterez A, Alvestrand A, Wahren J, Bergström J: Effect of in vivo contact between blood and dialysis membranes on protein catabolism in humans. Kidney Int 38: 487, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Koch KM: Dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int 41: 1416, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Vincent C, Revillard JP, Galland M, Traeger J: Serum 132- microglobulin in hemodialyzed patients. Nephron, 21: 260, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Vanholder RC, Ringoir SM: Intradialytic body weight changes and dialyzer pore size as main contributing factors to the evolution of beta-2-microglobulin in dialysis. Blood Purif 8: 32, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Zaoui P, Stone WJ, Hakim RM: Effects of dialysis membranes on ß2m production and cellular expression. Kidney Int 38: 962, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    van Ypersele de Strihou C, Jadoul M, Malghem J, Maldague B, Jamart J: Effect of dilaysis membrane and patient’s age on signs of dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int 39: 1012, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Villaroel F, Ciarkowski AA: A survey of hypersensitivity reactions in hemodialysis. Artif Organs 11: 137, 1985.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Popli S, Ing TS, Daugirdas JT, Kheirbek AO, Viol GW, Vilbar RM, Ghandi VC: Severe reactions to cuprophan capillary dialyzers. Artif Organs 6: 312, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Daugirdas JT, Ing TS: First-use reactions during hemodialysis: a definition of subtypes. Kidney Int 33: S37, 1988.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Marshall C, Shimizu A, Smith EKM, Dolovich J: Ethylene oxide allergy in a dialysis center: prevalence in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis populations. Clin Nephrol 21: 346, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hakim RM, Breilatt J, Lazarus JM, Port FK: Complement activation and hypersensitivity reactions to dialysis membranes. N Engl J Med 311: 878, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Verresen L, Waer M, Vanrenterghem Y, Michielsen P: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and anaphylactoid reactions to high-flux membrane dialysis. Lancet 336: 1360, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Tielemans C, Madhoun P, Lenaers M, Schandene L, Goldman M, Vanherweghem JL: Anaphylactoid reactions during hemodialysis on AN69 membranes in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. Kidney Int 38: 982, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Schulman G, Hakim RM, Arias R, Silverberg M, Kaplan AP, Arbeit L: Bradykinin generation by dialysis membranes: possible role in anaphylactoid reaction. J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 1563, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Alfrey AC, Legendre GR, Kaehny WD: The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. Possible aluminum intoxication. N Engl J Med 294: 184, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Drüeke T: Dialysis osteomalacy and aluminum intoxication. Nephron 26: 207, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Cavaillon JM, Cianconi C, Bade F, Delons S, Kazatchkine M: In vivo induction of interleukin-1 during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 35: 1212, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Vanholder R, Van Haecke E, Veys N, Ringoir S: Endotoxin transfer through dialysis membranes: small-versus large-pore membranes. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 333, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Klinkmann H, Wolf H, Schmidt E: Definition of biocompatibility. Contrib Nephrol 37: 70, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Lyman DJ, Knutson K, Mc Neil L B, Shibatani K: The effects of chemical structure and surface properties of synthetic polymers on the coagulation of blood. IV. The relation between polymer morphology and protein absorption. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 21: 49, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Gasparotto ML, Bertoli M, Vertolli U, Ruffatti A, Stoppa ML, Di Landro D, Romagnoli GF: Biocompatibility of various dialysis membranes as assessed by coagulation assay. Contrib Nephrol 37: 96, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Hirsh J, Dalen JE, Deykin D, Poller L: Heparin: mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, dosing considerations, monitoring, efficacy, and safety. Chest 102: 337S, 1992.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Freedman MD: Pharmacodynamics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of heparin. J Clin Pharmacol 32: 584, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Rylance PB, Gordge MP, Ireland H, Lane DA, Weston MJ: Haemodialysis with prostacyclin (epoprostenol) alone. Proc EDTA-ERA 21: 281, 1984.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Camici M, Evangelisti L: Prostacyclin and heparin during haemodialysis. Comparative effects. Life Support Systems 4: 205, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Renaud H, Moriniére P, Dieval J, Abdull-Massin Z, Dkhissi H, Toutlemonde F, Delobel J, Fournier A: Low molecular weight heparin in haemodialysis and haemofiltration—comparison with unfractioned heparin. Proc EDTA-ERA 21: 276, 1984.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Schrader J, Stibbe W, Armstrong VW, Kandt M, Muche R, Köstering H, Seidel D, Scheler F: Comparison of low molecular weight heparin to standard heparin in hemodialysis/ hemofiltration. Kidney Int 33: 890, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Vanholder R, Camez A, Veys N, Soria J, Mirshahi MC, Soria C, Ringoir S: Recombinant hirudin: a specific thrombin inhibiting anticoagulant for haemodialysis. Kidney Int 45: 1754, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Leong ASY, Disney APS, Gove DW: Spallation and migration of silicone from blood-pump tubing in patients on hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 306: 135, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Bommer J, Waldherr R, Ritz E: Silicone storage disease in longterm hemodialysis patients. Contrib Nephrol 36: 115, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Bommer J, Gemsa D, Waldherr R, Kessler J, Ritz E: Plastic filing from dialysis tubing induces prostanoid release from macrophages. Kidney Int 26: 331, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Bommer J, Pernicka E, Kessler J, Ritz E: Reduction of silicone particle release during haemodialysis. Proc EDTAERA 21: 287, 1984.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Barron D, Harbottle S, Hoenich NA, Morley AR, Appleton D, McCabe JF: Particle spallation induced by blood pumps in hemodialysis tubing sets. Artif Organs 10: 226, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Morley AR, Barron D, Thompson P, Hoenich NA, Harbottle S, Kerr DNS: Surface alterations in dialysis roller pump inserts: a scanning electron microscopy study. J Biomed Eng 8: 255, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kevy S, Jacobson M: Hepatic effects of the leaching of phthalate ester plasticizer and silicon. Contrib Nephrol 36: 82, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Dolovich J, Marshal L CP, Smith EKM, Shimizu A, Pearson FC, Sugona MA, Lee W: Allergy to ethylene oxide in chronic hemodialysis patients. Artif Organs 8: 334, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    NG RCK, Suki WN: Treatment of acute renal failure. In: BM Brenner, JH Stein, eds, Treatment of Acute Renal Failure. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 229–273, 1980.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Delano BG: Regular dialysis treatment (RDT). In: JF Maher, ed, Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 669–685, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Bonomini V, Albertazzi A, Vangelista A, Bartolotti GC, Stefoni S, Scolari MP: Residual renal function and effective rehabilitation in chronic dialysis. Nephron 16: 89, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kiprov DD: An overview of therapeutic apheresis. Dial Transplant 14: 195, 1985.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Gurland HJ, Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W: Immunomodulation: clinical aspects. Artif Organs 10: 122, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond C. Vanholder
    • 1
  • Ann A. Van Loo
    • 1
  • Severin M. Ringoir
    • 1
  1. 1.Nephrology DepartmentUniversity HospitalGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations