Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders in Renal Diseases

  • Alberto Albertazzi
  • Mario Bonomini
  • Paolo Cappelli


Neurological abnormalities specifically related to uremia constantly occur in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), although they only become clinically well defined in severe acute renal failure (ARF) or late in the course of chronic renal failure (CRF) and sometimes in connection with metabolic acidosis and/or electrolyte disturbances secondary to renal disease (1–5).


Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Peritoneal Dialysis Chronic Renal Failure Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tyler HR: Neurological aspects of uremia. An overview. Kidney Int 1 (Suppl 2): S188 - S193, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raskin NH, Fishman RA: Neurologic disorders in renal failure. N Engl J Med 294: 143–148, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fräser CL, Arieff AL: Nervous system complications in uremia. Ann Intern Med 109: 143–153, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jennekens FGI, Jennekens-Schinkel A: Neurological aspects of dialysis patients. In: JF Maher, ed, Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp 972–986, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cappelli P, Di Paolo B, Albertazzi A: Neurological complications of the uremic syndrome. In: S Giovannetti, ed, Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp 95–99, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bolton CF, Young GB: Neurological Complications of Renal Disease. Butterworth Publishers, Boston, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    lohnson M, Davison AM: The nervous system and the kidney. In: S Cameron, AM Davison, J-P Grunfeld, D Kerr, E Ritz, eds, Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 2323–2333, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Locke SJ, Merril JP, Tyler HR: Neurological complications of acute uremia. Arch Intern Med 108: 75–86, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ginn HE: Neurobehavioral dysfunction in uremia. Kidney Int 7 (Suppl 2): S217 - S225, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Albertazzi A, Di Paolo B, Cappelli P, Spisni C, Del Rosso G: Evoked potentials in uremia. Contrib Nephrol 45: 60–68, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Di Paolo B, Di Marco T, Cappelli P, Spisni C, Del Rosso G, Palmieri PF, Evangelista M, Albertazzi A: Electrophysiological aspects of nervous conduction in uremia. Clin Nephrol 29: 253–260, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Teschan PE, Ginn HE, Bourne JR, Ward JW, Amel B, Nummally IC, Musso M, Vaughn WK: Quantitative indices of clinical uremia. Kidney Int 15: 676–697, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hagstam KE: EEG frequency content related to chemical blood parameters in chronic uremia. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1 (Suppl l):l-9, 1971.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Albertazzi A, Di Paolo B, Del Rosso G, Gambi D, Rossini PM: Neurophysiological abnormalities in uraemic encephalopathy. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc Eur Ren Assoc 18: 652–657, 1981.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rossini PM, Pirchio M, Treviso M, Gambi D, Di Paolo B, Albertazzi A: Checkerboard reversal pattern and flash VEPs in dialysed and nondialysed subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 52: 435–444, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weber B, Hacke W, Stiller S, Mann H: Evaluation of uremic neuropathy by visual (VEP) and brainstem auditory (BAEP) evoked potentials. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 31: 586–589, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown 1J, Sufit RL, Sollinger HW: Visual evoked potential changes following renal transplantation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 66: 101–107, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rossini PM, Di Stefano E, Febbo A, Di Paolo B, Basciani M: Brainstem auditors evoked responses (BAERs) in patients with chronic renal failure. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 57: 507–514, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Komsuoglu SS, Mehta R, lones LA, Harding GFA: Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in chronic renal failure and maintenance hemodialysis. Neurology 35:419-423,1985.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rossini PM, Treviso M, Di Stefano E, Di Paolo B: Nervous impulse propagation along peripheral and central fibres in patients with chronic renal failure. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 56: 293–303, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Albertazzi A, Di Paolo B, Amoroso L: Central and peripheral nervous system in dialysis patients: CAPD vs HD. In: G La Greca, S Chiaramonte, eds, Peritoneal Dialysis. Wichtig Editore, Milano, pp 281–286, 1988.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Olsen S: The brain in uremia. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 36 (Suppl 156): 3–129, 1961.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Arieff AI: Neurological manifestations of uremia. In: BM Brenner, FC Rector, eds, The Kidney. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1731–1756, 1986.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Akmal M, Goldstein DA, Multani S, Massry S, Massry SG: The role of uremia, brain Ca and PTH on change in EEG in chronic renal failure. Am J Physiol 246: F575, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Massry SG: Current status of the role of parathyroid hormone in uremic toxicity. Contrib Nephrol 49: 1–11, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mitch WE, Walser M: Nutritional therapy of the uremic patient. In: BM Brenner, FC Rector, eds, The Kidney, 4th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 2186–2222, 1991.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bergstrom J, Lindblom U, Noree L-O: Preservation of peripheral nerve function in severe uremia during treatment with low protein high calorie diet and surplus of essential amino acids. Acta Neurol Scand 51: 99–109, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cappelli P, Di Paolo B, Evangelista M, Di Marco T, Albertazzi A: Low-protein diet supplemented with essential amino acids and keto analogues. Effects on uremic polyneuropathy and encephalopathy. Contrib Nephrol 53: 58–63, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Giovannetti S: Dietary treatment of chronic renal failure: Why is it not used more frequently? Nephron 40: 1–12, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cappelli P, Di Paolo B, Albertazzi A: Effects of nutritional treatment on the course of uremic neuropathy. In: S Giovannetti, ed, Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp 255–257, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rozeman CAM, Jonkman El, Poortvliet DC1, Emmen HH, de Weerd AW, van der Maas APC, Tjandra YI, Beermann EM: Encephalopathy in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and patients on chronic haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 1213–1218, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nissenson AR: Epoetin and cognitive function. Am J Kidney Dis 20 (Suppl l): 21–24, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sagales T, Gimeno V, Planella MJ, Raguer N, Bartolome J: Effects of rHuEPO on Q-EEG and event-related potentials in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 44: 1109–1115, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Levinsky NG: Fluids and electrolytes—acidosis and alkalosis. In: ID Wilson, E Braunwald, KJ Isselbacher, RG Petersdorf, JB Martin, AS Fauci, RK Root, eds, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 278–295, 1991.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Andreoli TE: Disorders of fluid volume, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. In: IB Wyngaarden, LH Smith, 1C Bennet, eds, Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 499–527, 1992.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. I. Clinical signs and symptoms. Acta Med Scand 190: 105–111, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Di Paolo B, Cappelli P, Spisni C, Albertazzi A, Rossini PM, Marchionno L, Gambi D: New electrophysiological assessments for the early diagnosis of encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy in uremia. Int J Tissue React 4: 301–307, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. VI. Relationship between sensory and motor function and kidney function, azotemia, age, sex and clinical neuropathy. Acta Med Scand 194: 455–162, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ahonen RE: Peripheral neuropathy in uremic patients and in renal transplant recipients. Acta Neuropathol 54: 43–53, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spencer PS, Schaumberg HH: Central-peripheral distal axonopathy. The pathology of “dying-back” polyneuropathies. Proc Neuropathol 3: 253–255, 1977.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Savazzi GM, Cambi V, Migone L, Marbini A, Govoni E, Bragaglia MM, Juvarra G, D’Aglio PP: The influence of uraemic neuropathy on muscle EMG, histoenzymatic and ultrastructural correlation. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc Eur Ren Assoc 17: 312–317, 1980.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tegner R, Lindholm B: Vibratory perception threshold compared with nerve conduction velocity in the evaluation of uremic neuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand 71: 290–297, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dyck PJ, Johnson WJ, Lambert EH, O’Brien PC: Segmental demyelination secondary to axonal degeneration in uremic neuropathy. Mayo Clin Proc 46: 400–531, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rosales RL: Normal sural nerve morphometry in acute uremia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 942–943, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Albertazzi A, Cappelli P, Bonomini M, Del Rosso G, Di Paolo B, Evangelista M, Palmieri PF: Role of essential amino acids and ketoanalogues in antagonizing uremic catabolism. Contrib Nephrol 98: 167–173, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Violante F, Lorenzi S, Fusello M: Uremic neuropathy: clinical and neurophysiological investigation of dialysis patients using different chemical membranes. Eur Neurol 24: 398–104, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tegner R, Lindholm B: Uremic polyneuropathy: different effects of hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Acta Med Scand 218: 409–416, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yokota S, Takagi H, Kumano K, Sakai T: Peripheral nerve function in patients on CAPD as compared to hemodialysis. In: K Ota, ed, Current Concepts in Peritoneal Dialysis, Elsevier Science Publishers BV, Amsterdam, pp 587–592, 1992.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Fijter CWH, Oe PL, Strijers RLM, Ven Der Meulen J, Ter Wu PM, Donker AJM: The course of uremia-associated peripheral neuropathy: chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) versus chronic hemodialysis (CHD). In: K Ota, ed, Current Concepts in Peritoneal Dialysis, Elsevier Science Publishers BV, Amsterdam, pp 593–597, 1992.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. VII. Recovery after renal transplantation. Acta Med Scand 195: 171–180, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bolton CF: Electrophysiologic changes in uremic neuropathy after successful renal transplantation. Neurology 26: 152–161, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Albertazzi A, Di Paolo B, Cappelli P, Evangelista M, Di Marco T, Varanese L: Uremic polyneuropathy: electrophysiologic findings after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 17: 121, 1985.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brecht HM, Ernst W, Koch KM: Plasma noradrenaline levels in regular hemodialysis patients. Proc EDTA 12: 281–289, 1975.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Campese VM, Romoff MS, Levitan D, Lane K, Massry SG: Mechanisms of autonomic nervous dysfunction in uremia. Kidney Int 20: 246–253, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Campese VM, Massry SG: Autonomic nervous system. In: SG Massry, RJ Glassock, eds, Textbook of Nephrology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1162–1165, 1989.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zucchelli P, Sturani A, Zuccala A, Santoro A, Degli Esposti E, Chiarini C: Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system in patients with end-stage renal failure. Contrib Nephrol 45: 69–81, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wilson JA, Yalya TM, Giles GR, Davison AM: The effect of haemodialysis and transplantation on autonomic neuropathy. Proc EDTA 16: 261–265, 1979.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mäher J, Schreiner G: Hazards and complications of dialysis. N Engl J Med 273: 370–377, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Basil EC, Miller JDR, Koles Z, Grace M, Ulan RA: The effects of dialysis on brain water and EEG in stable chronic uremia. Am J Kidney Dis 9: 462–469, 1987.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Arieff AI: Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. In: SG Massry, RJ Glassock, eds, Textbook of Nephrology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1168–1170, 1989.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arieff AI, Massry SG, Barrientos A, Kleeman CR: Brain water and electrolyte metabolism in uremia: effects of slow and rapid hemodialysis. Kidney Int 4: 177–187, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Arieff AI, Lazarowitz VC, Guisado R: Experimental dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: prevention with glycerol. Kidney Int 14: 270–278, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Posner JB, Plum F: Spinal fluid pH and neurologic symptoms in systemic acidosis. N Engl J Med 277: 605, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Port FK, Johnson WJ, Klass DW: Prevention of dialysis dysequilibrium syndrome by the use of high sodium concentration in the dialysate. Kidney Int 3: 327–333, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kennedy AC, Linton AL, Luke RG, Renfrew S: Electro-encephalographic changes during hemodialysis. Lancet i:408-111, 1963.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rosa AA, Shideman J, McHugh R, Duncan D, Kjellstrand CM: The importance of osmolality fall and ultrafiltration rate on hemodialysis side effects: influence of intravenous manni-tol. Nephron 27: 134–141, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Raju SF, White AR, Barness TT, Smith PP, Kirchner KA: Improvement in dysequilibrium symptoms during dialysis with low glucose dialysate. Clin Nephrol 18: 126–129, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pagel MD, Ahmad S, Vizzo JE, Scribner BH: Acetate and bicarbonate fluctuations and acetate intolerance during dialysis. Kidney Int 21: 513–518, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jack R, Rabin PL, McKinney TW: Dialysis encephalopathy: a review. Int J Psychiatry Med 13:309–326, 1983/1984.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Smith DB, Lewis JA, Burks JS, Alfrey AC: Dialysis encephalopathy in peritoneal dialysis. IAMA 244: 365–366, 1980.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dewberry FL, McKinney TD, Stone WJ: The dialysis dementia syndrome: report of fourteen cases and review of the literature. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 3: 102–108, 1980.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Andreoli SP, Beegstein JM, Sherrard DJ: Aluminum intoxication from aluminum-containing phosphate binders in children with azotemia not undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med 310: 1079–1084, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Alfrey AC, LeGendre GR, Kaehney WD: The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome: possible aluminum intoxication. N Engl I Med 294: 184–188, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chokroverty S, Bruetman BE, Berger V, Reyes MG: Progressive dialytic encephalopathy. I Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39: 411–419, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dunea G, Mahurkar SD, Mamdami B, Smith EC: Role of aluminum in dialysis dementia. Ann Intern Med 88: 502–504, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Davison AM, Oli H, Walker GS, Lewins AM: Water supply, aluminum concentration, dialysis dementia and effect of reverse-osmosis water treatment. Lancet ii: 785–786, 1982.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mahoney CA, Arieff AI: Uremic encephalopathies: clinical, biochemical, and experimental features. Am J Kidney Dis 2: 324–336, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bommer J: Medical complications of the long-term dialysis patients. In: S Cameron, AM Davison, JP Grunfeld, D Kerr, E Ritz, eds, Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 1436–1458, 1992.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kirschbaum BB, Schoolwarth AC: Acute aluminum toxicity associated with oral citrate and aluminum-containing antacids. Am J Med Sci 297: 9, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vasilakakis DM, D’Haese PC, Lamberts LV, Lemoniatou E, Digenis PN, De Broe ME: Removal of aluminoxamine and ferrioxamine by charcoal hemoperfusion and hemodialysis. Kidney Int 41: 1400–1407, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ackrill P, Ralston Al, Day JP, Hodge KC: Successful removal of aluminum from a patient with dialysis encephalopathy. Lancet ii: 692–693, 1980.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Boealaert JR, de Locht M: Side-effects of desferrioxamine in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant Suppl 1: 43–46, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Consensus Conference: Diagnosis and treatment of aluminum overload in end-stage renal failure patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant Suppl 1: 1–4, 1993.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Verpooten GA, D’Haese PC, Boelaert 1R, Becaus I, Lamberts LV, De Broe ME: Pharmakokinetics of aluminoxamine and ferrioxamine and dose finding of desferrioxamine in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 931–938, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Davison AM, Giler GR: The effect of transplantation on dialysis dementia. Proc EDTA 16:407-112,1979.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ball 1H, Butkus DE, Madison DS: Effect of subtotal parathyroidectomy on dialysis dementia. Nephron 18: 151, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    De Gencarelli NC, Cournot-Witmer G, Zingraff J, Drueke T: The role of parathyroid function and parathyroidectomy in the outcome of aluminum-related dialysis encephalopathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1: 192–198, 1986.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lewins AM: Aluminum intoxication. Proc EDTNA 10: 219 220, 1982.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pagani C, Zoerle C, Guaita MC, Bazzi C, Sorgato G, Torti G: Carpal tunnel syndrome in long-term dialyzed patients. Contrib Nephrol 45: 82–96, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Camerini C, Brunori G, Manili L, Movilli E, Feller P, Mombelloni S: Is CAPD competitive with hemodialysis for long term treatment of uraemic patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 4: 244–253, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Halter SK, De Lisa 1A, Stolov W: Carpal tunnel syndrome in chronic renal dialysis patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 62: 197–201, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ritz E, Bommer 1: Beta-2 microglobulin derived amyloid problems and perspectives. Blood Purif 6: 61–68, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chow JC: Endoscopic release of the carpal ligament: a new technique for carpal tunnel syndrome. Arthroscopy 5: 19–24, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bechar M, Lakke IP, Hem GK, van der Becks 1W, Penning L: Subdural hematoma during long-term hemodialysis. Arch Neurol 26: 513–518, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McLachlan RS, Bolton CF, Coates RK, Barnett HIM: Gait disturbance in chronic subdural hematoma. Can Med Assoc J 125: 865–868, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tietjen DP, Moore 1 Jr, Gouge IF: Hemodialysis-associated acute subdural hematoma: interim management with peritoneal dialysis. Am J Nephrol 7: 478–485, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Nardini 1, Fang LST, Rubin RH: Successful hemodialysis of patients at high risk of hemorrhage using the Eval dialyzer. Dial Transplant 15: 125, 1986.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rotter W, Roettger P: Comparative pathologic-anatomic study of cases of chronic global renal insufficiency with and without hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 1: 257, 1974.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lopez RI, Collins GK: Wernicke’s encephalopathy: a complication of chronic hemodialysis. Arch Neurol 18: 248–259, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kimmel PL, Miller G, Mendelson WB: Sleep apnoea syndrome in chronic renal disease. Am J Med 86: 308–314, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kimmel PL: Sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients. In: JP Bosch, JH Stein, eds, Contemporary Issues in Nephrology. Vol. 27: Hemodialysis: high-efficiency treatments. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 295–308, 1993.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sullivan CE, Berthon-Jones M, Issa FG: Reversal of obstructive sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure applied through the nares. Lancet i: 862, 1981.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Benz RL, Pressman MR, Schliefer CR, Peterson DD: Sleep disorder profiles in chronic renal failure patients: successful intervention with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (abstract). Am J Kidney Dis 20: A1, 1992.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mitler MM, Browman CP, Menn SJ, et al.: Nocturnal myoclonus: treatment efficacy of clonazepam and ternazepam. Sleep 9: 385, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Olsen CA: A statistical review of variables predictive of adjustment in hemodialysis patients. Nephrol Nurse 5: 16–27, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Levenson JL, Glocheski S: Psychological factors affecting end-stage renal disease. Psychosomatics 32: 382–389, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kimmel PC, Weihs K, Peterson RA: Survival in hemodialysis patients: the role of depression. J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 12–27, 1993.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Locsey L, Balogh L, Toth E: Psychological effects of chronic haemodialysis. Int Urol Nephrol 19: 91–100, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Neu S, Kjellstrand CM: Stopping long-term dialysis: an empirical study of withdrawal of life-supporting treatment. N Engl J Med 314: 14–20, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wolcott DL, Marsh JT, La Rue A, Can C, Nissenson AR: Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy may improve quality of life and cognitive function in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 14:478-185,1989.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Friedman EA, Lundin AP III: Outcome and complication of chronic hemodialysis. In: RW Schrier, CW Gottschalk, eds, Diseases of the Kidney, 5th ed. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 3069–3095, 1993.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kennedy SH, Craven JL, Rodin GM: Major depression in renal dialysis patients: an open trial of antidepressant therapy. J Clin Psychiatry 50: 60–63, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Roose SP, Glassman AH, Dalack GW: Depression, heart disease, and tricyclic antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry 50 (Suppl): 12–16, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pasquali S, Casanova S, Zucchelli A, Zucchelli P: Long-term survival patients with acute and severe renal failure due to multiple myeloma. Clin Nephrol 34: 247–254, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Zucchelli P, Paquali S, Cagnoli L, Ferrari G: Controlled plasma exchange trial in acute renal failure due to multiple myeloma. Kidney Int 33: 1175–1180, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bardwick PA, Zvaifler NJ, Gill GN, Newman D, Greenway GD, Resnick DL: Plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes: the POEMS syndrome, report on two cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 59: 311–321, 1980.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fagerburg SE: Diabetic neuropathy: a clinical and histologic study on the significance of vascular affections. Acta Med Scand 164 (Suppl 345):l-80,1959.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Evans WE, Manninen DL, Garrison LP, et al.: The quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 312: 553–558, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Krane EJ, Roackhoff MA, Wallman JD, Wolfsldorf JI: Subclinical brain swelling in children during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. N Engl] Med 312: 1147–1151, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Keller V, Berger W, Troug P: Course and prognosis of 86 episodes of diabetic coma: a five year experience with a uniform schedule of treatment. Diabetologia 11: 93–100, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Podolsky S: Hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma in the elderly diabetic. Med Clin North Am 62: 815–828, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    McCurdy DK: Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic non-ketotic diabetic coma. Med Clin North Am 54: 683–699, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Asbury AK: Focal and multifocal neuropathies of diabetes. In: PJ Dyck, PK Thomas, AK Asbury, et al, eds, Diabetic Neuropathy. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 45–55, 1987.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Amair P, Khanna R, Leibel B, et al: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in diabetics with end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 306: 625–630, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tegner R: The effect of skin temperature on viibratory sensitivity in polyneuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 48: 176–178, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Najarian JS, Sutherland DER, Simmons RL, et al.: Ten year experience with renal transplantation in juvenile onset diabetes. Ann Surg 190: 487–500, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Solders G, Wilczek H, Gunnarsson R, et al.: Effects of combined pancreatic and renal transplantation on diabetic neuropathy; a two-year follow-up study. Lancet 2: 1232–1235, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Moore PM, Fauci AS: Neurologic manifestations of systemic vasculitis: a retrospective and prospective study of the clinico-pathologic features and responses to therapy in 25 patients. Am J Med 71: 517–524, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sanford JP: Epidemiology and root of the problem. In: RK Root, MA Sande, eds, Septic Shock. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 1–11, 1985.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rao TK, Friedman EA, Nicastri AD: The types of renal disease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 316: 1062–1068, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bredesen DE, Levy RM, Rosenblum ML: Human immunodeficiency virus-related neurological dysfunction. In: MJ Aminoff, ed, Neurology and General Medicine. The Neurological Aspects of Medical Disorders, Chapter 37. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 673–679, 1989.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Miller RG, Parry GJ, Pfaeffl W, Lang W, Lippert R, Kiprov D: The spectrum of peripheral neuropathy associated with ARC and AIDS. Muscle Nerve 11: 857–863, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ayms JC, Krothapalli RK, Arieff AI: Treatment of symptomatic hyponatremia and its relation to brain damage. A prospective study. N Engl J Med 317: 1190–1195, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tomson CRV, Venning MC, Ward MK: Blood pressure and erythropoietin (letter). Lancet ii: 351, 1988.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sande MA, Mandell GL: Antimicrobial agents: the aminoglycosides. In: AG Gilman, LS Goodman, TW Rail, F Murad, eds, Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 7th ed, vol 51. Macmillian, New York, pp 1150–1169, 1985.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Cuss FMC, Carmichael DJS, Allington A, Hulme B: Tubercolosis in renal failure: a high incidence in patients born in the third world. Clin Nephrol 25: 129–133, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kaplan JG, Barasch E, Hirschfeld A, Ross L, Einberg K, Gordon M: Spinal epidural lipomatosis: a serious complication of iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. Neurology 39: 1031–1034, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kahan BD, Flechner SM, Lorber MI, et al.: Complication of cyclosporine therapy. World J Surg 10: 348–360, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Poison RJ, Powell-Jackson PR, Williams R: Convulsions associated with cyclosporin A in transplant recipients. Br Med J 290: 1003, 1985.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hughes RL: Cyclosporin-related central nervous system toxicity in cardiac transplantation. N Engl J Med 323: 420–121, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Atkinson K, Biggs JC, Karveniza P, et al: Spinal cord cer-ebellar-like syndromes associated with the use of cyclosporine in human recipients of allogenic marrow transplants. Transplant Proc 17: 1673–1675, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Martin MA, Massanari M, Nighiem DD, Smith JL, Corry RJ: Nosocomial aseptic meningitis associated with administration of OKT3. JAMA 259: 2002–2005, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Albertazzi
    • 1
  • Mario Bonomini
    • 2
  • Paolo Cappelli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Nephrology and DialysisG. D’Annunzio University Institute of Nephrology University of Chieti, S. Camillo De Lellis HospitalChietiItaly
  2. 2.Institute of NephrologyUniversity of Chieti, S.Camillo De Lellis HospitalChietiItaly

Personalised recommendations