Renal Insufficiency

  • Fadi G. Lakkis
  • Manuel Martinez-Maldonado


Regardless of the primary etiology of renal disease, the progressive decline in renal function eventually leads to uremia. In most patients with chronic renal insufficiency the signs and symptoms of uremia manifest when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases to less than 15–20mL/min. When GFR reaches a level lower than 5 mL/min, end-stage renal disease sets in and replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or transplantation becomes unavoidable. This chapter focuses on the conservative management of patients with chronic renal insufficiency who do not yet require renal replacement therapy.


Chronic Renal Failure Renal Replacement Therapy Phosphate Binder Chronic Renal Insufficiency Chronic Renal Disease 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fadi G. Lakkis
    • 1
  • Manuel Martinez-Maldonado
    • 2
  1. 1.Nephrology Division Department of Medicine, Atlanta Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterEmory University School of Medicine and The Medical and Research ServicesDecaturUSA
  2. 2.Medical Service, Atlanta Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterEmory University School of Medicine and The Medical and Research ServicesDecaturUSA

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