Mixed Acid-Base Disorders

  • Nicolaos E. Madias
  • Horacio J. Adrogué


The simultaneous presence of two or more acid-base disturbances produces the conditions known as mixed acid-base disorders. Characterization of these disorders and proper identification of their pathogenesis can be a challenging task and is a prerequisite for taking sound corrective action (1–5). Such therapeutic measures might be of critical importance because many mixed acid-base disorders confer high morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, mixed acid-base disturbances are commonly observed in hospitalized patients, especially those in critical care units. Moreover, under certain circumstances, detection of a mixed acid-base disorder might provide a clue to the presence of a previously unrecognized disease.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Metabolic Acidosis Lactic Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis Respiratory Acidosis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaos E. Madias
    • 1
  • Horacio J. Adrogué
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, New England Medical CenterTufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Renal Section Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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