• Edward S. Hoffman
  • David P. Gustafson
  • Albert J. Gouwens


Concrete walls are defined (Section 2.1) as elements, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces. Minimum reinforcement requirements given for walls in Section 14.3 apply to walls which are used to separate spaces and which function in the structure as compression members. The provisions of Sections 14.4 and 14.5 apply to walls which function as compression members. It should be noted that all minimum reinforcement requirements for walls in Chapter 14 may be disregarded “where structural analysis shows adequate strength and stability” (Section 14.2.7). The required analysis for flexural strength (Section 22.6) can be employed. Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement can be likewise reduced (Section 22.2.1). The design of such walls must be based on lateral forces or any other loads to which they may be subjected (Section 14.2.1). A rational method of design for walls subject to flexure or both flexure and axial compression is provided (Section 14.4). An empirical method of design for bearing walls with small moment (resultant compressive force within the middlethird of the wall thickness) is permitted (Section 14.5.1 and Section The empirical design method is explained in detail (Section 14.5 and Section 22.6.5). Non-loadbearing walls whether precast or cast-in-place, ordinary reinforced or prestressed, must be designed by the rational method, taking into account all loading conditions (Sections 14.4, 16.3, and 18.1.3).


Single Curvature Plain Concrete Wall Panel Deep Beam Double Curvature 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward S. Hoffman
    • 1
  • David P. Gustafson
    • 2
  • Albert J. Gouwens
    • 3
  1. 1.Edward S. Hoffman, LtdChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Concrete Reinforcing Steel InstituteSchaumburgUSA
  3. 3.Gouwens Engineering Consultants, IncElmhurstUSA

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