Error-Resilient Standard-Compliant Video Coding

  • Bernd Girod
  • Niko Färber


In this chapter we review and compare two approaches to robust video transmission that can be implemented within the H.263 video compression standard. The focus of this chapter is on channel adaptive approaches that rely on a feedback channel between transmitter and receiver carrying acknowledgment information. Based on the feedback information, rapid error recovery is achieved by intra refresh of erroneous image regions. The consideration of spatial error propagation provides an additional advantage. Though the average gain is less than 0.3 dB, annoying artifacts can be avoided in particularly unfavorable cases. The feedback messages that need to be defined outside the scope of H.263 are supported in the ITU-T Recommendation H.324 that describes terminals for low bit-rate multimedia communication. In order to investigate the influence of error concealment we provide simulation results for concealment with the zero motion vector and the true motion vector as a lower and an upper bound respectively. Experimental results with bursty bit error sequences simulating a wireless DECT channel at various Signal to Noise Ratios are presented in order to compare the different approaches. We are using a simple Forward Error Correction (FEC) scheme on the forward channel while assuming error-free transmission and a fixed delay of 100 ms for the backward channel. For the comparison of picture quality we distinguish between distortion caused by coding and distortion caused by transmission errors. For the second kind of distortion we derive a model that is verified by experimental results from an H.263 decoder. Whenever appropriate, a discussion of system and complexity issues is included.


Discrete Cosine Transform Motion Vector Video Code Forward Error Correction Transmission Error 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.263, “Video Coding for Low Bitrate Communication,” 1996.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Y. Wang and Q.-F. Zhu, “Error Control and Concealment for Video Communication: A Review”, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 974–997, May 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    LBC Doc. LBC-95–304 (ITU-T Study Group 15, Working Party 15/1), “Draft Recommendation AV.26M,” Robert Bosch GmbH, Darmstadt, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    R. Fischer, P. Mangold, R.M. Pelz, G. Nitsche, “Combined Source and Channel Coding for Very Low Bitrate Mobile Visual Communication Systems,” in Proc. Int. Picture Coding Symposium, pp. 231–236, 1996.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    K. Illgner and D. Lappe, “Mobile multimedia communications in a universal telecommunications network,” in Proc. of SPIE Conf. on Visual Communications and Image Processing, pp. 1034–1043, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    B. Girod, U. Horn, and B. Belzer, “Scalable video coding with multiscale motion compensation and unequal error protection,” in Multimedia Communications and Video Coding, Y. Wang, S. Panwar, S.P. Kim, and H.L. Bertoni (eds.), New York: Plenum Press, 1996, pp. 475–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    R. Mann Pelz, “An unequal error protected px8 kbit/s video transmission for dect,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 1020–1024, 1994.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    LBC Doc. LBC-95–309 (ITU-T Study Group 15, Working Party 15/1), “Subvideos with retransmission and intra-refreshing in mobile/wireless environments,” National Semiconductor Corporation, Darmstadt, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    LBC Doc. LBC-96–033 (ITU-T Study Group 15, Working Party 15/1), “An error resilience method based on back channel signalling and FEC,” Telenor Research, San Jose, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    N. Färber, E. Steinbach, B. Girod, “Robust H.263 Compatible Video Transmission Over Wireless Channels,” in Proc. Int. Picture Coding Symposium, pp. 575–578, 1996.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    E. Steinbach, N.Färber, and B. Girod, “Standard Compatible Extension of H.263 for Robust Video Transmission in Mobile Environments,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. for Video Tech., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 872–881, Dec. 1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    B. Girod, N. Färber, E. Steinbach, “Error-Resilient Coding for H.263,” in Insights into Mobile Multimedia Communication, D. Bull, N. Canagarajah, A. Nix (eds), Academic Press, To be published.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    S. Lin, D.J. Costello, and M.J. Miller, “Automatic repeat error control schemes,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 22, pp. 5–17, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    A. Heron, N. MacDonald, “Video Transmission over a radio link using H.261 and DECT,” IEE conference publications, no. 354, pp. 621–624, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. Khansari, A. Jalali, E. Dubois, and P. Mermelstein, “Low Bit-Rate Video Transmission over Fading Channels for Wireless Microcellular Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Feb. 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    C. Chen, “Error Detection and Concealment with an Unsupervised MPEG2 Video Decoder,” Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 265–278, Sep. 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    P. Haskell, and D. Messerschmitt, “Resynchronization of motion compensated video affected by ATM cell loss,” in Proc. ICASSP, vol.3, pp. 545–548, 1992.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    M. Wada, “Selective recovery of video packet loss using error concealment,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 7, pp. 807–814, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    K. Tzou, “Post Filtering for Cell Loss Concealment in Packet Video,” SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing IV, vol. 1199, pp. 1620–1628, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    W.-M. Lam, A.R. Reibman, and B. Lin, “Recovery of lost or erroneously received motion vectors,” in Proc. ICASSP, vol. 5, 1993.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    G. Wen and J. Villasenor, `A class of reversible variable length codes for robust image and video coding,“ in IEEE Int. Conf. Image Proc., vol. 2, pp. 65–68, Santa Barbara, CA, Oct. 1997.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    R. Talluri, “Error-Resilient Video Coding in the ISO MPEG-4 Standard,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 112–119, June 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    LBC Doc. LBC-96–186 (ITU-T Study Group 15, Working Party 15/1), “Definition of an error concealment model ( TCON),” Telenor Research, Boston, 1995.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    B. Girod, N. Färber, E. Steinbach, “Performance of the H.263 Video Compression Standard”, Journal of VLSI Signal Processing: Systems for Signal, Image, and Video Technology, vol. 17, pp. 101–111, Nov. 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    G.C. Clark, Jr., and J.B. Cain, Error-Correction Coding for Digital Communications, New York: Plenum Press, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Girod
    • 1
  • Niko Färber
    • 1
  1. 1.Telecommunications LaboratoryUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations