The Treatment of Estrogen Deficiency in Women at Risk for Breast Cancer and Survivors of the Disease

  • Richard Santen
  • JoAnn V. Pinkerton
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 8)


Many women choose not to take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after menopause even though medical indications are present (1–5). Among all menopausal women in the United States, only 20–40% ever take HRT (5). Among those given prescriptions, only 65% continue to take the HRT after the first prescription and only 25% for more than three years (6). Many of these women feel that menopause is a natural transition in life and that menopause-associated problems do not require therapy. Others are fearful of complications such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and stroke or endometrial and breast cancer. For the estimated 2.5 million survivors of breast cancer in the United States, concern about mammary carcinoma risk strongly influences decision making processes regarding HRT.


Bone Mineral Density Postmenopausal Woman Vertebral Fracture Estrogen Replacement Therapy Estrogen Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Santen
    • 1
  • JoAnn V. Pinkerton
    • 1
  1. 1.The Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, and The Department of Obstetrics/ Gynecology and the Women’s PlaceUniversity of Virginia Health SystemCharlottesvilleUSA

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