Specific Blood Purification by Means of Antibody-Conjugated Magnetic Microspheres

  • Christoph Weber
  • Dieter Falkenhagen


The employment of immobilized antibodies (antigens) offers the most selective approach to extracorporeal adsorptive removal of humoral factors from blood. Polypeptide mediators and antibodies in systemic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, respectively, can not be depleted by hemodialysis treatment, and thus represent attractive targets for immunoadsorption regimen. In this article we describe the elimination of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), the major pathogenic mediators in septic shock and multi-organ failure, by superparamagnetic microspheres used in the novel MDS blood purification technology. The particles, consisting of antibody conjugates, exhibit high adsorption rate, capacity, selectivity, and biocompatibility. By application in an in vitro MDS set-up, human plasma could be efficiently cleansed from IL-lß and TNFa. Contrary to conventional blood and plasma chromatography techniques, MDS offers a high degree of flexibility and continuous blood processing due to magnetic adsorbent replacement.


Immobilize Antibody Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Blood Purification Secondary Circuit High Adsorption Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Yokayama S, Hayashi R, Satani M, Yamamoto (1985). Selective removal of LDL by plasmapheresis in familial hypercholesterolemia. Arteriosclerosis 5, 613–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Usami M, Nomura H, Nishimatsu S, Shiroiwa H, Kasahara H, Takeyama Y, Saitoh Y (1995). In vivo and in vitro evaluation of bilirubin removal in postoperative hyperbilirubinemia patients. Artif Organs 19, 102–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nagesh RV and Murphy KA (1988). Caffeine poisoning treated by hemoperfusion. Am J Kid Dis 12, 316–318.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heininger K, Gaczkowski A, Hartung HP, Borberg H, Toyka KV (1987). A new semiselective procedure in therapeutic plasma exchange for myasthenia gravis. In Therapeutic plasma exchange and selective plasma separation. Bambauer R, Malchesky PS, Falkenhagen D (Eds), Stuttgart, Schattauer, 393–398.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yuki N (1996). Tryptophan-immobilized column adsorbs immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibody from Fisher’s syndrome: a new approach to treatment. Neurology 46, 1644–1651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grob D, Simpson D, Mitsumoto H, Hoch B, Mokhtarian F, Bender A, Greenberg M, Koo A, Nakayama S (1995). Treatment of myasthenia gravis by immunoadsorption of plasma. Neurology 45, 338–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stoffel W and Demant T (1981). Selective removal of apolipoprotein B containing serum lipoproteins from blood plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci 78, 611–615.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stoffel W, Borberg H, Greve V (1981). Application of specific extracorporeal removal of low density lipoprotein in familial hypercholesterolemia. Lancet ii, 1005–1007.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Müller-Derlich J, du Moulin A, Spaethe R (1993). Specific removal of human immunoglobulin with IgGTherasorb. Artif Organs 17, 546.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leventhal JR, John R, Fryer JP, Witson JC, Müller-Derlich J, Remiszewski J, Dalmasso AP, Matas AJ, Bol-man RM (1995). Removal of baboon and human antiporcine IgG and IgM natural antibodies by immunoadsorption. Transplantation 59, 294–300.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dinarello CA (1991). Interleukin-1 and inlerleukin-1 antagonism. Blood 77, 1627–1652.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dinarello CA, Cannon JG, Wolff SM, Bernheim HA, Beutler B, Cerami A, Figari IS, Palladino MA, O’Connor JV (1986). Tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) is an endogenous pyrogen and induces production of interleukin 1. J Exp Med 163, 1433–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Casey LC, Balk RA, Bone RC (1993). Plasma cytokine and endotoxin levels correlate with survival in patients with the sepsis syndrome. Ann Intern Med 119, 771–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Falkenhagen D (1995). Small particles in medicine. Artif Organs 19, 792–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weber C, Rajnoch C, Loth F, Schima H, Falkenhagen D (1994). The Microspheres based Detoxification System (MDS). A new extracorporeal blood purification technology based on recirculated microspherical adsorbent particles. Int J Artif Organs 17, 595–602.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    von Appen K, Weber C, Losert U, Schima H, Gurland HJ, Falkenhagen D (1996). Microspheres based Detoxification System: a new method in convective blood purification. Artif Organs 20, 420–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weber C, Henne B, Loth F, Schoenhofen M, Falkenhagen (1995). Development of cationically modified cellulose adsorbents for the removal of endotoxins. ASAIO J 41, M430 - M434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph Weber
    • 1
  • Dieter Falkenhagen
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Biomedical TechnologyDonau-Universität KremsKremsAustria

Personalised recommendations