Synthetic Nitrogen Products

  • Lawrence D. Pesce
  • William R. Jenks

Abstract

Nitrogen products are among the most important chemicals produced in the world today. The largest quantities are used as fertilizers, but nitrogen products also find very important uses in the manufacture of nylon and acrylic fibers, methacrylate and other plastics, foamed insulations and plastics, metal plating, and gold mining, to list a few. There are virtually no nitrogen compounds that can be mined or distilled from crude oil or any other natural source. Therefore, economical fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere has been a never ending quest. It has been a difficult task because elemental nitrogen is comparatively unreactive. It combines with few other elements, and then usually only under drastic conditions of high pressure and/or high temperature.

Keywords

Ammonium Nitrate Industrial Chemistry Methyl Ethyl Ketone Centrifugal Compressor Ammonia Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chem. Eng. News, p. 16 (Aug. 27, 1979 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harris, G. T., and Harre, F. A., “World Fertilizer Situation and Outlook, 1978–85—and Trends 1979,” TVA, Muscle Shoals, AL, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    SRI International, Chemical Economics Handbook,1988.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hydrocarbon Proc.,Section 2 (Oct. 1979).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Updegraff. N. C., and Mayland, B. J., Petrol. Refiner, 33 (12), 156–159 (Dec. 1954).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chem. Eng., pp. 57–59 (Oct. 8, 1979 ).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    U.S. Patent 4,153,673.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    U.S. Patent 4,162,290.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    U.S. Patent 3,106,457.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hougen, O. A., et al., Chemical Process Principles, Part II, p. 1107, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1959.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Catalyst Handbook,p. 79, Katalco Corp., Oak Brook, Ill.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    U.S. Patent 3,827,987.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chem. Eng., pp. 115–128 (Dec. 18, 1978 ).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.C.S. Synthetic Fuels Symposium, Sept. 12–15, 1955.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Am. Petrol. Inst., “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons,” Research Project 44, Nat. Bureau of Standards.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chem. Eng., pp. 69–71 (Jan. 30, 1978 ).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lombard, J. F., Hydrocarbon Proc.,48 (8), 111 (Aug. 1969).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lundberg, W. C., Chem. Eng. Prog., p. 81 (June 1979).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Slack, A. V., and James, G. R., Ammonia, Part III, pp. 123–153.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chem. Eng. Prog., 69 No. (2), 67–70 (Feb. 1973).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    AICHE, “Amine Guard Systems in Hydrogen Production,” 86th National Meeting, Houston, TX, Apr. 1–5, 1979.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    U.S. Patent 3,352,631.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    U.S. Patent 3,347,621.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chem. Eng., pp. 88–89 (Dec. 3, 1979 ).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hydrocarbon Proc.,pp. 145–151 (Apr. 1978).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    U.S. Patent 2,863,527.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chem. Eng., 67 (19), 166–169 (Sept. 19, 1960 ).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Catalyst Handbook, p. 119, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Removing Carbon Monoxide from Ammonia Synthesis Gas,“ Ind. Eng. Chem.,53 (8), 645 (Aug. 1961).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grotz, B. J., Hydrocarbon Proc., 46 (4), 197 (1967).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    U.S. Patent 3,584,998.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kellogg Ammonia License Bulletin, Reprint 1990.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Compression Systems for Ammonia Plants,“ Chem. Eng. Prog.,p. 88 (July, 1979).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Quartulli et al., “Best Pressure for Ammonia Plants,” Hydrocarbon Proc., 47 (11), 153–161 (1968).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nielsen Andres, An Investigation of Promoted Iron Catalysts for the Synthesis of Ammonia, 3rd ed., Jul. Gjellerup Forlag, Copenhagen, 1956.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Catalyst Reviews,pp. 1–25, (Apr. 9, 1970).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ulmanns, Encyklopadie de Technischen Chemie, Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munchen and Berlin, 1953.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Viscosity-Temperature Correlation for Liquids,“ Chem. Eng.,p. 83 (July 16, 1979).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    U.S. Patent 2,894,821.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    U.S. Patent 3,992,328.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chem. Eng., p. 63 (July 16, 1979 ).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    U.S. Patent 3,310,376.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Slack, A. V., and James, G. R., Ammonia,Part III, pp. 291 and 387.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kellogg Bulletin, “Large Scale Production of UAN,” 1990.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bechtel License Bulletin, “Ammonia,” 1991.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chemical Marketing Reporter(Apr. 29, 1991).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    ECN Process Review(Oct./Nov. 1990).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sauchelli, “Fertilizer Nitrogen,” ACS Monograph Series 161.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thompson, R. The Modern Inorganic Chemical Industry, The Chemical Society, Burlington House, London, 1977.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hydrocarbon Proc., Petrochemical Handbook Issue, p. 119 (Nov. 1983).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nitric Acid, SABAR,“ Hydrocarbon Proc., p. 106 (Nov. 1989).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Spratt, D. A., Proc. Fertilizer Soc. of England (Mar. 25, 1958 ).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Catalytic Processes in Nitric Acid Manufacture,“ Fertilizer Society Proceedings,London, 1978.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    U.S. Patent 4,957,720.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chem. Eng., 67 (8), 94 (1960).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    U.S. Patent 3,202,481.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    U.S. Patent 2,760,845.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Powell, R., “Nitric Acid Technology-Recent Developments,” Noyes Development Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 1969.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chem. Eng. News, 44 (27), 13 (July 4, 1966 ).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    SRI International, Chemical Economics Handbook,1987.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stafford, J. D., Samuels, W. E., and Croysdale, L. G., “Ammonium Nitrate Plant Safety,” Am. Inst. of Chem. Eng., Sept. 27–29, 1965.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chem. Week, 101 (2), 75 (July 8, 1967 ).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hydrocarbon Proc. (1987).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Franz, R., and Applegath, F., Chem. Eng., 67 (25), 71 (1960).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    U.S. Patent 3,232,984.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bechtel Corporation Bulletin, “Urea,” 1991.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    U.S. Patent 3,107,149.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Urea Process Technology,“ p. 139, Noyes Development Corp., Park Ridge, NJ.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    U.S. Patent 3,236,888.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    U.S. Patent 3,200,148.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    U.S. Patent 3,301,897.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    U.S. Patent 2,527,315.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Harri, E. A., “The Outlook for Nitrogen Fertilizers,” TVA, Muscle Shoals, AL, Forest Fertilizer Conference, Union, Washington, Sept. 25–27, 1979.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hydrocarbon Proc., 48 (11),209 (Nov. 1969).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    U.S. Patent 3,498,982.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Takakuwa, Y., et al., “Development of a Process for the Purification of Crude Melamine Manufactured from Urea,” Int. Chem. Engineering, 19 (4), 624 (Oct. 1979).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    SRI, “Directory of Chem. Products,” Jan. 1990.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    SRI, “Directory of Chem. Products,” Jan. 1990.Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Novella and Una, An. Quim., 65, 699–708 (1969).Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Egly, R. S., and Smith, E. F., CEP44, No. 5, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., pp. 387–398 (1948).Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    U.S. Patent 1,799,722.Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    U.S. Patent 3,387,032.Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    E. German Patent 108,275.Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Japan Patent 1623 (1952).Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    West German Patent DT-2916–060.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Serban, S., Rev. Chim. (Bucharest), 14 (8), 451–454 (1963).Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Issoire, J., and Long, C. V., Bull. Soc. Chem. France, pp. 2004–2012 (1960).Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    U.S. Patent 3,720,715.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Ulmanns, Encyklopadie de Technischen Chemie, 3rd ed., Vol. 12, pp. 421–425, Munich and Berlin, Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1960.Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Methylamines,“ Hydrocarbon Proc., pp. 114, 115 (Nov. 1983).Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    U.S. Patent 3,444,203.Google Scholar
  92. 91.
    DBP 1,019,313 (Old German Patent).Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    French Patent 762194.Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    Schnell Publishing Co., Inc., Chemical Profile (July 1, 1979 ).Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    SRI International, Chemical Economics Handbook,“Alkylamines,” 1988.Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    Sitig, M., “Amines, Nitriles and Isocyanate Processes and Products,” Noyes Development Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 1969.Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    SRI, Chemical Economics Handbook, “Ethyleneamines 1989.Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Astle, M. J., Industrial Organic Nitrogen Compounds, pp. 12–13, 1961.Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    Meissner, F., Schwiedessen, E., and Othmer, D. F., Ind. Eng. Chem., 46, 724 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    U.S. Patent 3,538,199.Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Czechoslovakian Patent 250012.Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    Chemical Economics Handbook,658, 5033X.Google Scholar
  103. 102.
    SRI International, “Directory of Chemical Producers,” 1990.Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Schmidt, Hydrazine and Its Derivatives, p. 485, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    Chem. Eng., (1), 120–123 (July 14, 1958 ).Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Japanese Patent Application SHO-62–83308.Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Powell, R., “Hydrazine Manufacturing Processes,” Noyes Development Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 1968.Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Schmidt, Hydrazine and Its Derivatives, p. 514, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Andrussow, L., Angew Chem., 48, 593 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Kirk and Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 6, p. 577, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    U.S. Patent 3,104,940.Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Hydrocarbon Proc. 46 (11), 189 (Nov. 1967).Google Scholar
  113. 112.
    SRI International, “Hydrogen Cyanide,” Feb. 1989.Google Scholar
  114. 113.
    U.S. Patent-1,190,922.Google Scholar
  115. 114.
    German Patent 944,547.Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    German Patent 1,209,501.Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    U.S. Patent 4,869,889.Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    U.S. Patent 2,776,872.Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    U.S. Patent 3,501,267.Google Scholar
  120. 119.
    Sedricks, W., “Hydrocan Cyanide from Methanol,” SRI publication.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Japanese Patent 13459.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Aniline,“ Hydrocarbon Proc.,p. 124 (Nov. 1985).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hydrocarbon Proc., Petrochemical Handbook Issue, Nov. 1979.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    SRI, Chemical Economics Handbook,“Ammonia,” p. 756.6001c.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    International Critical Tables, Vol. III, pp. 304, 305, 309, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1928.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry, and Technolog y, Vol. IV, p. 255, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1928.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Perry, R. H., and Chilton, C. H. (Eds.), Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schnell Publishing Co., Inc., Chemical Economics Handbook, 611, 5030.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    SRI International, Chemical Economics Handbook, “Ammonium Nitrate,” 1988.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    SRI International, Chemical Economics Handbook,“Nitrogen Products—Urea,” July 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence D. Pesce
    • 1
  • William R. Jenks
    • 1
  1. 1.E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.USA

Personalised recommendations