Political and Literary Answers to Some ‘Jewish Questions’: Proust, Joyce, Freud, and Herzl

  • Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi
Chapter

Abstract

How did Europeans of the early twentieth century look at the questions of Jewish identity and Zionism? Jews in the European world, whose lives were being shaped by European traditions of anti-Semitism on the one hand and the recent coming of the Enlightenment and capitalism on the other, had to re-define their identity. The struggles with Jewish identity, as it became separated from Judaism, are examined through the writings and the lives of Marcel Proust, James Joyce, Sigmund Freud, and Theodor Herzl. What we find is that European social realities are faithfully reflected in two great modern novels. The failure of assimilation, which led Herzl to Zionism, is thoroughly documented by the novelists, who show us that a racial conception of Jews dooms assimilation to failure. Could Europe be trusted? That was the question. Herzl was the most pessimistic, and called for desperate action; Freud was stoically optimistic, as were Proust and Joyce.

Keywords

Jewish Community Jewish Identity Jewish People Standard Edition Jewish Tradition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, A. (1956). The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  2. Bakan, D. (1965). Sigmund Freud And The Jewish Mystical Tradition. New York: Schocken.Google Scholar
  3. Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1989). Prolegomena to the Psychological Study of Religion. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1993). Original Sins: Reflections on the History of Zionism and Israel. New York: Interlink.Google Scholar
  5. Beit-Hallahmi, B. Psychoanalytic Studies of Religion: Critical Assessment and Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  6. Beit-Hallahmi, B. and Argyle, M. (1997). The Psychology of Religious Behaviour, Belief and Experience. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Bergmann, M.S. (1995). The Jewish and German roots of psychoanalysis and the impact of the Holocaust. American Imago, 52, 243–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bunzl, M. (1997). Theodor Herzl’s Zionism as gendered discourse. In R. Robertson and E. Timms (Eds.) Theodor Herzl and the Origins of Zionism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Burgess, A. (1965). Re Joyce. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  10. Charmé, S.L. (1986). `A Ticket to Ride’: Bourgeois Civility, Jewish Marginality, and Existential Authenticity in the Lives of Freud and Sartre. Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 143–159.Google Scholar
  11. Charmé, S.L. (1991). Vulgarity and Authenticity: Dimensions of Otherness in the World of Jean-Paul Sartre. University of Massachusetts PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, S.M. and Eisen, A.M. (2000). The Jew Within: Self Family and Community in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Costello, P. (1981). Leopold Bloom: A Biography. London: Gill and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Davidson, N.R. (1996). James Joyce, “Ulysses”, and the Construction of Jewish Identity: Culture, Identity, and “the Jew” in Modernist Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Falk, A. (1975–1976). Identity and Name Changes. The Psychoanalytic Review, 62, 647–657.Google Scholar
  16. Falk, A. (1978). Freud and Herzl. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 14, 357–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fiedler, L.A. (1991). Fiedler on the Roof Essays on Literature and Jewish Identity. Boston: D.R. Godine.Google Scholar
  18. French, M. (1982). The Book as World: James Joyce’s Ulysses. London: Abacus.Google Scholar
  19. Friedman, L.J. 2000 ). Identity’s Architect: A Biography of Erik Erikson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Freud, C. (2001). Freud Ego. London: BBC Consumer Publishing.Google Scholar
  21. Freud, S. (1900). Interpretation of Dreams. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Writings of Sigmund Freud. Vol. S. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  22. Freud, S. (1905). An analysis of phobia in a five-year-old boy. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Writings of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 10, 3–149. London: Hogarth PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Freud, S. (1926) Address to the society of Bnai-Brith. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Writings of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 20, 271–276. London: Hogarth PressGoogle Scholar
  24. Freud, S. (1928). A religious experience.. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Writings of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 21, 167–174. London: Hogarth PressGoogle Scholar
  25. Freud, S (1939). Moses and Monotheism. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Writings of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 23. London: Hogarth PressGoogle Scholar
  26. Freud, S. (1970). The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Arnold Zweig. New York: Harvest.Google Scholar
  27. Greenberg, C. (1950/1995). Self-hatred and Jewish chauvinism: Some reflections on “positive Jewishness”. In The Collected Essays and Criticism. Google Scholar
  28. Gay, P. (1978). Freud, Jews and Other Germans. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Gay, P. (1985). Freud for Historians. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gay, P. (1987). A Godless Jew: Freud, Atheism and the Making of Psychoanalysis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Gay, P. (1988). Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  32. Gilman, S. (1991). The Jew’s Body. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Gilman, S. (1993). Freud, Race, and Gender. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Goldscheider, C. and Zuckerman, A.S. The Transformation Of the Jews. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  35. Greer, G. (1971). The Female Eunuch. New York: McGraw-Hill. Vol. 3: Affirmations and Refusals, 1950–1956. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  36. Grosskurth, P. (1986). Melanie Klein: Her World and Her Work. New York: Knopf. Grunberger, R. Band of brothers. AJR Journal, March 2001.Google Scholar
  37. Hayman, R. (1990). Proust: A Biography. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  38. Heilman, S.C. (1998) Portrait of American Jews: The last Half of the Twentieth Century. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  39. Herzl, T. (1898). In The American Hebrew,New York.Google Scholar
  40. Herzl, T. (1899). Antwort an Nordau. Die Welt, February 3.Google Scholar
  41. Himmelfarb, M. (1967). Secular society? A Jewish perspective. Daedalus, 156, 220–238.Google Scholar
  42. Ilnytzky, U. (1998). Literature’s top 100. The Associated Press, July 22.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, E. (1957). The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  44. Joyce, J. (1975). Selected Letters. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  45. Joyce, J. (1986), Ulysses. (edited by Hans Walter Gabler). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  46. Katz, J. (1989). Private Enterprise in the Construction of Palestine at the time of Second Aliyah. Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press.[Hebrew]Google Scholar
  47. Kazin, A. (1998). Laughter in the dark. The New York Review of Books. April 23.Google Scholar
  48. Keogh, D. (1998). Jews in Twentieth-Century Ireland: Refugees, Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust. Cork: Cork University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Krull, M. (1986). Freud and His Father. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  50. Marmorstein, E. (1969). Heaven At Bay. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Mosse, G. (1985). Nationalism and Sexuality: Respectability and Abnormal Sexuality in Modern Europe. New York: Howard Fertig.Google Scholar
  52. Nabokov, V. (1980). Lectures on Literature. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  53. Nadel, I.B. (1989). Joyce and the Jews: Culture and Texts. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.Google Scholar
  54. Nolan, E. (1995). James Joyce and Nationalism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Pawel, E. (1989). The labyrinth of exile: A life of Theodor Herzl. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.Google Scholar
  56. Proust, M. (1954) A La Rechrche du Temps Perdu: Sodome et Gomorrhe. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  57. Proust, M. (1992). In Search of Lost Time. (tr. C.K. Scott-Moncrieff and T. Kilmartin, revised by D.J. Enright). London: Chatto and Windus.Google Scholar
  58. Recanati, J. (1979). Profils juifs de Marcel Proust. Paris: Buchet, Chastel.Google Scholar
  59. Reik, T. (1953). The Haunting Melody: Psychoanalytic Experiences in Life and Music. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
  60. Rizzuto, A.-M. (1998). Why Did Freud Reject God?: A Psychodynamic Interpretation New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Robert, M. (1977). From Oedipus to Moses. Garden City, New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  62. Rolnik, E.J. (2002). Psychoanalysis moves to Palestine: Immigration, integration, and reception. In this volume.Google Scholar
  63. Rothman, S. and Isenberg, P. (1974). Freud and Jewish marginality. Encounter, December, 46–54.Google Scholar
  64. Sartre, J.-P. (1965). Anti-Semite and Jew. New York: Schocken.Google Scholar
  65. Scholem, G. (1989). Od Davar. Tel-Aviv: Am Oved. [Hebrew]Google Scholar
  66. Schorske, C.E. (1998). Thinking With History: Explorations in the Passage to Modernism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Shattuck, R. (1974). Marcel Proust. New York: Viking PressGoogle Scholar
  68. Simon, E.M. (1996). Betrayal and redemption: The transcendent Jew in the works of Kazantzakis, Joyce and Bellow. In H.J. Schrader, E.M. Simon and C. Wardi (Eds.) The Jewish Self-Portrait in European and American Literature. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.Google Scholar
  69. Sprinker, M. (1994). History and Ideology in Proust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Steyn, J. (1999). The Jew: Assumptions of Identity. London and New York: Cassell.Google Scholar
  71. Strozier, C.B. (2001). Heinz Kohut: The Making of a Psychoanalyst. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
  72. Tindall, W.Y. (1959). A Reader’s Guide to James Joyce. New York: Octagon.Google Scholar
  73. White, E. (1999). Marcel Proust. New York: Lipper/Viking..Google Scholar
  74. Wilson, E. (1928). A short view of Proust. The New Republic. March 21.Google Scholar
  75. Yassour, A. (1986). Philosophy-religion-politics: Borochov, Bogdanov and Lunacharsky. Studies in Soviet Thought. 31, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zimmerman, M. (1979). Leopold Paula Bloom: the New Womanly Man. Literature and Psychology, 29, 176–84;Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations