We saw in Chap. 1 that the process by which atoms are raised from level 1 to level 3 (for a three-level laser, Fig. 1.4a) or from level 0 to level 3 (for a four-level or a quasi-three-level laser, Fig. 1.4b) is referred to as the pumping process. Usually it is performed in one of the following ways: Optically, i.e., by the cw or pulsed light emitted by a powerful lamp or a laser beam; electrically, i.e., by a cw, radio-frequency, or pulsed current flowing in a conductive medium, such as an ionized gas or a semiconductor.
KeywordsPump Power Active Medium Pump Beam Lower Laser Level Laser Level
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