Pumping Processes

  • Orazio Svelto


We saw in Chap. 1 that the process by which atoms are raised from level 1 to level 3 (for a three-level laser, Fig. 1.4a) or from level 0 to level 3 (for a four-level or a quasi-three-level laser, Fig. 1.4b) is referred to as the pumping process. Usually it is performed in one of the following ways: Optically, i.e., by the cw or pulsed light emitted by a powerful lamp or a laser beam; electrically, i.e., by a cw, radio-frequency, or pulsed current flowing in a conductive medium, such as an ionized gas or a semiconductor.


Pump Power Active Medium Pump Beam Lower Laser Level Laser Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orazio Svelto
    • 1
  1. 1.Polytechnic Institute of Milan and National Research CouncilMilanItaly

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