The sale of packaged fresh meat has become a universally accepted form of retail marketing and is the preferred method for many busy shoppers who look for convenience and variety in the choice of cuts they can buy. While the system has failed to live up to earlier predictions that traditional forms of butchery would be replaced completely by central boning operations based on different packaging systems, the packaging of fresh meat continues to play an increasingly important marketing role, particularly in self-service outlets. Nowadays, both packaged meat and traditional butchery systems often exist side by side, fulfilling different consumer requirements and expectations. Newer forms of MAP have increased the possibilities for improving presentation and extending shelf-life and have added to the number of options available to the retailer.


Lactic Acid Bacterium Meat Product Modify Atmosphere Packaging Storage Life Packaging System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, M.R., Baker, T. and Forrest, C.L. (1987) A note on the shelf-life extension of the British fresh sausage. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 63(3), 227–232.Google Scholar
  2. Ahn, C. and Stiles, M.E. (1990) Antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged meats. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69, 302–310.Google Scholar
  3. Ahvenainen, R. (1989) Gas packaging of chilled meat products and ready-to-eat foods, VIT Technical Research Centre Publication No. 58. Esposo, Finland.Google Scholar
  4. Ahvenainen, R., Linroth, S. and Suihku, M. (1986) The influence of gas composition, gas contact area and gas permeability of the packages on the quality of meat loaves stored at chill temperatures, in Proceedings of Meat Chilling Symposium, International Institute of Refrigeration, Bristol, pp. 349–355.Google Scholar
  5. Andersen, H.J. and Rasmussen, M.A. (1992) Interactive packaging as protection against photo-degradation of the colour of pasteurised, sliced ham. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 27, 1–8.Google Scholar
  6. Andersen, HJ., Bertelsen, G., Ohlen, A. and Skibsted, L.H. (1990) Modified packaging as protection against photodegradation of the colour of pasteurised, sliced ham. Meat Science, 28, 77–83.Google Scholar
  7. Anjaneyulu, A.S.R. and Smidt, H.D. (1986) Packaging under carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide on the quality of processed ham. Indian Food Packer, 40(1), 40–44.Google Scholar
  8. Anon. (1984) Update on the gas flush pack. Food Manufacture, March, 22–25, 65.Google Scholar
  9. Anon. (1986) Taking the plunge. Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heaf Recover, 4, 13–16.Google Scholar
  10. Anon. (1988) Liquid nitrogen injection system pressurizes aluminium food cans. Food Engineering, Jan., 94.Google Scholar
  11. Anon. (1991a) Putting bacon on the MAP. Meat Industry, Feb., 20–21.Google Scholar
  12. Baltzer, J. (1969) The relationship between bacterial contamination and growth on meats and the quality of meat products, in Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference, AmericanMeat Science Association, Vol. 22, 294.Google Scholar
  13. Banks, J.G. and Board, R.G. (1982) Sulfite inhibition of Enterobacteriaceae including Salmonella in British fresh sausage and in culture systems. Journal of Food Protection, 45, 1292–1297.Google Scholar
  14. Barke, S., Lewins, S.C. and Wood, J. M. (1985) Penetration and distribution of curing salts. Part V. Further studies on variability in short backs of bacon. Leatherhead Food RA Research Reports No. 505. Confidential: for Members only.Google Scholar
  15. Barker, M. and Woods, L.F.J. (1990) Safety and spoilage aspects of lowering sodium chloride levels in ham. Leatherhead Food RA Research Reports No. 673. Confidential: for Members only.Google Scholar
  16. Barnes, E.M., Impey, C.S. and Griffiths, N.M. (1979) The spoilage flora and shelf-life of duck carcasses stored at 2 or -1°C, in oxygen-permeable or oxygen-impermeable film. British Poultry Science, 20, 491–500.Google Scholar
  17. Bentley, D.S., Reagan, J.O. and Miller, M.F. (1989) Effects of gas atmosphere, storage temperature, and storage time on the shelf-life and sensory attributes of vacuum-packed ground beef patties. Journal of Food Science, 54(2), 284–286.Google Scholar
  18. Bolder, N.M., van Lith, L.A.J.T., Putirulan, F.F. and Mast, M.G. (1991) Influence of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of air and water chilled broiler parts on the survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes and competitive pseudomonads, in Quality of Poultry Products III. Safety and Marketing Aspects (eds R.W.A.W. Mulder, and A.W. de Vries). Spelderholt Centre for Poultry Research and Information Services, Beekbergen, pp. 145–153.Google Scholar
  19. Breidenstein, B.B. (1982) Wholesale packaging for fresh meat, in International Symposium on Meat Science and Technology, Lincoln, Nebraska. National Livestock and Meat Board, Chicago, pp. 343–351.Google Scholar
  20. Brody, A.L. (1970) Shelf life of fresh meat. Modern Packaging, 1, 81.Google Scholar
  21. Brody, A.L. (1989) Controlled/Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Packaging of Foods. Food and Nutrition Press, Trumbull, CT.Google Scholar
  22. Brooks, J. (1938) Color of meat. Food Research, 3, 75.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, M.H. (ed.) (1982) Meat Microbiology. Applied Science, London.Google Scholar
  24. Brown, W.D. and Mebine, C.B. (1969) J. Biol. Chem., 244, 6696.Google Scholar
  25. Bruce, J.H. and Roberts, C.A. (1982) Vacuum-packed telescoped lamb: an innovative technique in whole-carcass packaging. Refrigeration and Science Technology, pp. 133–138.Google Scholar
  26. Buys, E.M., Kruger, J. and Nortje, G.L. (1994) Centralised bulk pre-packaging of fresh pork retail cuts in various gas atmospheres. Meat Science, 3(3), 293–308.Google Scholar
  27. Campbell, R.J., Egan, A.F., Grau, F.H. and Shay, B.J. (1979) The growth of Microbacterium thermosphacta on beef. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 47, 505–509.Google Scholar
  28. Canganella, F., Meloni, R., Tonnini, D., Mencarelli, F. and Trovatelli, L.D. (1993) Effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of beef steaks. Microbiologie, Aliments, Nutrition, 11(4), 433–441.Google Scholar
  29. Carr, T.P. and Marchello, J.A. (1986) Microbial changes of precooked beef slices as affected by packaging procedure. Journal of Food Protection, 49(7), 534–536.Google Scholar
  30. Carr, T.P. and Marchello, J.A. (1987) Growth of aerobic psychrotrophs and colour changes of precooked beef slices as affected by packaging procedure. Journal of Food Protection, 50(5), 733–736.Google Scholar
  31. Christopher, F.M., Seideman, S.C., Carpenter, Z.L., Smith, G.C. and Vanderzant, C. (1979) Microbiology of beef packaged in various gas atmospheres. Food Protection, 42, 240–244.Google Scholar
  32. Church, I.J. and Parsons, A.L. (1995) Modified atmosphere packaging technology: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 67(2), 143–152.Google Scholar
  33. Connor, D.E., Scott, V.N. and Bernard, D.T. (1989) Potential Clostridium botulinum hazards associated with extended shelf-life refrigerated foods: a review. Journal of Food Safety, 10, 131–153.Google Scholar
  34. Coyne, F.P. (1933) The effect of carbon dioxide on bacterial growth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 113, 196–217.Google Scholar
  35. Cross, H.R. and Overby, A.J. (1988) World Animal Science. B. Disciplinary Approach. Meat Science, Milk Science and Technology, Elsevier Science. New York.Google Scholar
  36. Davey, C.L. (1984) The structure of muscle and its properties as meat, in Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Meat, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, pp. 121.Google Scholar
  37. Day, B.P.F. (1992) Guidelines for the Good Manufacturing and Handling of Modified Atmosphere Packed Food Products, Campden Food and Drink Research Association, Campden, UK.Google Scholar
  38. Department of Health (1989) Guidelines for Cook-Chill and Cook-Freeze Catering Systems, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  39. Dowdell, M.J. and Board, R.G. (1971) The microbial associations in British fresh sausages. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 34, 317–337.Google Scholar
  40. Doyle, M.P. (1983) Effect of carbon dioxide on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum. European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 17, 53–56.Google Scholar
  41. Dumont, B.L. (1980) Beef quality marketing and the consumer, in The Problem of Dark-Cutting in Beef (eds D.E. Hood and P.V. Tarrant). Martinus Nijhoff, the Hague, pp. 37–58.Google Scholar
  42. Egan, A.F. and Roberts, T. A. (1987) Microbiology of meat and meat products, in Essays in Agricultural and Food Microbiology (eds J.R. Norris and G.L. Pettipher). Wiley, Chichester, pp. 167–197.Google Scholar
  43. Egan, A.F., Eustace, I.J. and Shay, B.J. (1988) Meat packaging. Maintaining the quality and prolonging the storage life of chilled beef, pork and lamb, in Meat 88, Proceedings Industry Day, 34th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Brisbane, pp. 68–75.Google Scholar
  44. Egan, A.F., Eustace, I.J., and Shay, B.J. (1991) Meat packaging: maintaining the quality and prolonging the storage life of chilled beef, pork and lamb, in Meat Focus International. International Food Information Service, Reading, pp. 28–33.Google Scholar
  45. Enfors, S.-O., Molin, G. and Ternstrom, A. (1979) Effect of packaging in carbon dioxide, nitrogen or air on the microbial flora of pork stored at 4°C. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 47, 197–208.Google Scholar
  46. Farber, J.M. (1991) Microbiological aspects of MAP — a review. Journal of Food Protection, 54, 58–70.Google Scholar
  47. Fronticelli, C. and Bucci, E. (1963) Acetone extraction of heme from myoglobin and hemoglobin at acid pH. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 78, 530.Google Scholar
  48. Fu, A.H., Molins, R.A. and Sebranek, J.G. (1992) Storage quality characteristics of beef rib eye steaks packaged in modified atmospheres. Journal of Food Science, 57(2), 283–287.Google Scholar
  49. Garout, A.M., Al-Rashed, A.A. and Bell, R.G. (1989) Storage life of vacuum and carbon dioxide-packed New Zealand chilled lamb imported into Saudi Arabia, in Proceedings, 35th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Roskilde. Danish Meat Research Institute, pp. 376–388.Google Scholar
  50. Genigeorgis, C.A. (1985) Microbial and safety implications of the use of modified atmospheres to extend the storage life of fresh meat and fish. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 1, 237–251.Google Scholar
  51. Georgala, D.L. and Davidson, C.M. (1970) Food Package. British Patent 1,199,998.Google Scholar
  52. Gill, C.O. (1982) Microbial interaction with meats, in Meat Microbiology (ed. M.H. Brown), Applied Science, London, pp. 225–264.Google Scholar
  53. Gill, C.O. (1987) in Proceedings of the 4th A.A.A.P. Animal Science Conference, Hamilton, New Zealand, p. 388.Google Scholar
  54. Gill, C.O. (1989) Packaging for prolonged chill storage: The Captech process. British Food Journal, 91(7), 11–15.Google Scholar
  55. Gill, C.O. (1990) Controlled atmosphere packaging of chilled meats. Food Control, 1(2), 69–73.Google Scholar
  56. Gill, C.O. and Jones, T. (1996) The display life of retail packaged pork chops after their storage in master packs under atmospheres of N2, CO2 or O2 + CO2. Meat Science, 42(2), 203–213.Google Scholar
  57. Gill, C.O. and Penney, N. (1986) Packaging conditions for extended storage of chilled dark, firm, dry beef. Meat Science, 18, 14–53.Google Scholar
  58. Gill, C.O. and Penney, N. (1988) The effect of the initial gas volume to meat weight ratio on the storage life of chilled beef packaged under carbon dioxide. Meat Science, 22, 53–63.Google Scholar
  59. Gill, C.O. and Reichel, M.P. (1989) Growth of the cold-tolerant pathogens Yersinia enterocolitis, Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes on high-pH beef packaged under vacuum or carbon dioxide. Food Microbiology, 6, 223–230.Google Scholar
  60. Gill, CO. and Tan, K.H. (1980) Effect of carbon dioxide on growth of meat spoilage bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 39, 317–319.Google Scholar
  61. Glass, K.A. and Doyle, M.P. (1989) Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in processed meat products during refrigerated storage. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 55, 565–1569.Google Scholar
  62. Goodburn, K.E. and Halligan, A.C. (1988) Modified-Atmosphere Packaging: A TechnologyGuide. Leatherhead Food RA, Leatherhead, UK.Google Scholar
  63. Gray, R.J.H., Elliot, P.H. and Tomlins, R.I. (1984) Control of two major pathogens on fresh poultry using a combination of potassium sorbate/carbon dioxide packaging treatment. Journal of Food Science, 48, 142–145, 179.Google Scholar
  64. Greer, G.C. and Jones, S.D.M. (1991) Effects of lactic acid and vacuum packaging on beef processed in a research abattoir. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 24(3/4), 161–168.Google Scholar
  65. Haines, R.B. (1933) The influence of carbon dioxide on the rate of multiplication of certain bacteria as judged by viable counts. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, 52, 13T–17T.Google Scholar
  66. Hanna, M.O., Zink, D.L., Carpenter, Z.L. and Vanderzant, C. (1976) Yersinia-enterocolitica-like organisms from vacuum-packaged beef and lamb. Journal of Food Science, 41, 1254–1256.Google Scholar
  67. Hart, C., Mead, G.C. and Norris, A.P. (1991) Effects of gaseous environment and temperature on the storage behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken breast meat. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 70, 40–46.Google Scholar
  68. Hauschild, A.H.W., Poste, L.M. and Hilsheimer, R. (1985) Toxin production by Clostridium botulinum and organoleptic changes in vacuum-packaged raw beef. Journal of Food Protection, 48, 712–716.Google Scholar
  69. Hendrick, H.B. (1980) Preventive treatments during the preslaughter period, in The Problem of Dark-Cutting in Beef (eds D.E. Hood and P.V. Tarrant), Martinus Nijhoff, the Hague, pp. 213–219.Google Scholar
  70. Hintlian, C.B. and Hotchkiss, J.H. (1986) The safety of modified atmosphere packaging: a review. Food Technology, 40(12), 70–76.Google Scholar
  71. Hintlian, C.B. and Hotchkiss, J.H. (1987) Comparative growth of spoilage and pathogenic organisms on modified atmosphere-packaged cooked beef. Journal of Food Protection, 50(3), 218–223.Google Scholar
  72. Hood, D.E. (1971) Technical aspects of vacuum packaging and pre-packaging of fresh meat, in Beef Processing and Marketing, Conference Proceedings. The Agricultural Institute, Dublin, pp. 24–42.Google Scholar
  73. Hood, D.E. (1975) The technology of fresh meat marketing. Irish Veterinary Journal, 2(9), 139.Google Scholar
  74. Hood, D.E. (1984) The chemistry of vacuum and gas packaging of meat, in Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Meat (ed. A. J. Bailey). The Royal Society of Chemistry, London, pp. 213–230.Google Scholar
  75. Hotchkiss, J.H. (1988) Experimental approaches to determining the safety of food packaged in modified atmospheres. Food Technology, 42(9), 55–64.Google Scholar
  76. Hotchkiss, J.H. (1989) Modified atmosphere packaging of poultry and related products, in Controlled/odified Atmosphere/Vacuum Packaging, (ed. A.L. Brody). Food and Nutrition Press, Trumbull, CT.Google Scholar
  77. Hotchkiss, J.H., Baker, R.C and Qureshi, R.X. (1985) Elevated carbon dioxide atmospheres for packaging poultry. II. Effects on chicken quarters and bulk packages. Poultry Science, 64, 333–340.Google Scholar
  78. Humphreys, P. (1985) Ways of extending shelf-life. Turkeys, 33(6), 25, 27.Google Scholar
  79. ICMSF (1980a) Microbial Ecology of Foods, Vol. 1. Factors Affecting Life and Death of Microorganisms. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  80. ICMSF (1980b) Microbial Ecology of Foods, Vol.2. Food Commodities. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  81. Igbinedion, J.E., Orr, H.L., Johnson, R.A. and Gray, J.I. (1981) The influence of packaging in flexible films and light on the shelf-life of fresh chicken broiler carcasses. Poultry Science, 61, 716–718.Google Scholar
  82. Ingram, M. (1962) Microbiological principles in pre-packaging meats. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 25, 259.Google Scholar
  83. Jones, J.M. and Grey, T.C. (1989) Influence of processing on product quality and yield, in Processing of Poultry (ed. G.C. Mead), Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 127–181.Google Scholar
  84. Jones, J.M., Mead, G.C., Griffiths, N.M. and Adams, B.W. (1982) Influence of packaging on microbiological, chemical and sensory changes in chill-stored turkey portions. British Poultry Science, 23, 25–40.Google Scholar
  85. Jones, M.V. (1989) Modified atmospheres, in Mechanisms of Action of Food Preservation Procedures (ed. G.W. Gould). Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 247–284.Google Scholar
  86. Juni, E. and Heym, G.A. (1986) Psychrobacter immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov.: genospecies composed of Gram negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive coccobacilli, International journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 36, 388–391.Google Scholar
  87. Kenny, T. and Corcoran, M. (1986) Effects of preservative, gas packaging and preheating on storage life and quality of sausages. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 10(2), 159–160.Google Scholar
  88. Knight, M.K. and Wood, J.M. (1990) Technological and sensory effects of lowering sodium choride levels in ham. Leatherhead Food RA Research Report No. 668. Confidential: for Members only.Google Scholar
  89. Laleye, L.C., Lee, B.H., Simard, R.E., Carmichael, L. and Holley, R.A. (1984a) Shelf-life of vacuum- or nitrogen-packed pastrami: effects of packaging atmospheres, temperature and duration of storage on microflora changes. Journal of Food Science, 4, 827–831.Google Scholar
  90. Laleye, L.C., Lee, B.H., Simard, R.E., Carmichael, L. and Holley, R.A. (1984b) Shelf-life of vacuum- or nitrogen-packed pastrami: effects of packaging atmospheres, temperature and duration of storage on physicochemical and sensory changes. Journal of Food Science, 49, 832–837.Google Scholar
  91. Lambert, A.D., Smith, J.P. and Dodds, K.L. (1991a) Effect of headspace CO concentration on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in MAP, irradiated fresh pork. Journal of Food Protection, 54, 558–592.Google Scholar
  92. Lambert, D.A., Smith, J. P. and Dodds, K.L. (1991b) Shelf life extension and microbiological safety of fresh meat — a review. Food Microbiology, 8, 267–297.Google Scholar
  93. Lawlis, T.L. and Fuller, S.L. (1990) Modified atmosphere packaging incorporating an oxygen-barrier shrink film. Food Technology, 44(6), 124.Google Scholar
  94. Leadbetter, S. (1989) Sous-vide — a Technology Guide, Leatherhead Food RA, Leatherhead, UK.Google Scholar
  95. Legarreta, LG., Usborne, W.R. and Ashton, G.C. (1988) Extending the retail storage time of pork sausage using modified atmospheres and freezing. Meat Science, 23(1), 21–36.Google Scholar
  96. Leistner, L. (1978) Microbiology of ready-to-serve foods. Die Fleischwirtschaft, S8, 2008–2011.Google Scholar
  97. Licciardello, J.J., Nickerson, J.T.R., Riblich, C.A. and Goldblith, S.A. (1967) Thermal inactivation of type E botulinum toxin. Applied Microbiology, 15, 249–256.Google Scholar
  98. Marriott, N.G., Naumann, H.D., Stringer, W.C. and Hedrick, H.B. (1967) Colour stability of prepacked fresh beef as influenced by pre-display environments. Food Technology, 21, 1518–1520.Google Scholar
  99. McDaniel, M.C., Marchello, J.A. and Tinsley, A.M. (1984) Effect of different packaging treatments on microbiological and sensory evaluation of precooked beef roasts. Journal of Food Protection, 47(1), 23–26.Google Scholar
  100. Mead, G.C. (1989) Hygiene problems and control of process contamination, in Processing of Poultry (ed. G.C. Mead), Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 183–220.Google Scholar
  101. Mead, G.C, Griffiths, N.M., Jones, J.M., Grey, T.C. and Adams, B.W. (1983) Effects of gas packaging on the keeping quality of turkey breast fillets stored at 1°C. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 16, 142–146.Google Scholar
  102. Mead, G.C., Griffiths, N.M., Grey, T.C. and Adams, B.W. (1986) The keeping quality of chilled duck portions in modified atmosphere packs. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 19, 117–121.Google Scholar
  103. Norris, J.R. and Pettipher, G.L. (1987) Essays in Agricultural and Food Microbiology. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Ogilvy, W.S. and Ayres, J.C. (1951) Post-mortem changes in stored meats. II. The effect of atmospheres containing carbon dioxide in prolonging the storage life of cut-up chicken. Food Technology, 5, 97–102.Google Scholar
  105. Ooraikul, B. and Stiles, M.E. (1991) Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Food. Ellis Horwood, Chichester.Google Scholar
  106. Patterson, J.T. and McMeekin, T.A. (1981) Biodeterioration of air chilled poultry carcasses at chill temperatures, in Quality of Poultry Meat (eds R.W.A.W. Mulder, C.W. Scheele and C.H. Veerkamp). Spelderholt Institute for Poultry Research, Beekbergen, pp. 454–458.Google Scholar
  107. Patterson, J.T., Gillespie, C.W. and Hough, B. (1984) Aspects of the microbiology of vacuum- and gas-packaged chicken including pre-treatments with lactic acid and potassium sorbate. British Poultry Science, 25, 457–465.Google Scholar
  108. Patterson, M. (1990) Combination of irradiation with MAP, in Proceedings International Conference on Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Stratford-on-Avon, UK, 13 pp.Google Scholar
  109. Perron, J. (1988) Sous-vide — a chef’s boon with dangers. Food Today, May, 29–32.Google Scholar
  110. Ranken, M.D. (1984) Notes on Meat Products. Leatherhead Food Research Association, Leatherhead, UK.Google Scholar
  111. Rawlinson, A.P. (1971) The effects of gas packaging on the shelf-life and bacterial safety of cooked, cured meats. Leatherhead Food RA Research Reports No. 178. Confidential: for Members only.Google Scholar
  112. Sander, E.H. and Soo, H. (1978) Increasing shelf life by CO2 treatment and low storage temperature of bulk packs of fresh chicken packaged in Nylon/Surlyn® film. Journal of Food Science, 43, 1519–1523, 1527.Google Scholar
  113. Sante, V., Remerre, M. and Lacourt, A. (1994) Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on color stability and on microbiology of turkey breast meat. Journal of Food Quality, 17(3), 177–195.Google Scholar
  114. Sarantopoulos, C.I.G.L., Gomes, T.C., Galves, R.M.V., Galvao, M.T.E.L. and Castillo, C.J.C. (1996) Effects of modified atmosphere master packaging on quality and shelf life of poultry, in Institute of Food Technologists Book of Abstracts, p. 177.Google Scholar
  115. Sawaya, W.N., Elnawawy, A.S., Abu-Ruwiada, A.S., Khalafawi, S. and Dashti, B. (1995) The influence of modified atmosphere packaging on shelf life of chicken carcasses under refrigerated storage conditions. Journal of Food Safety, 15(1), 35–51.Google Scholar
  116. Schmidt, C.F., Lechowich, R.V. and Folinazzo, J.F. (1961) Growth and toxin production by type E Clostridium botulinum below 40°F. Journal of Food Science, 26, 626–630.Google Scholar
  117. Shaw, B.G. and Harding, C.D. (1984) Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 56, 25.Google Scholar
  118. Shaw, B.G. and Latty, J.B. (1984) A study of different Pseudomonas groups on meat using a computer assisted identification technique employing only carbon source tests. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 57, 59–67.Google Scholar
  119. Shaw, R. (1995) MAP of meats and poultry, in Conference Proceedings, ModifiedAtmosphere Packaging (MAP) and Related Technologies, September 6–7, Campden &Chorleywood Food Research Association, Campden, UK.Google Scholar
  120. Shay, B.J. and Egan, A.F. (1986) Studies of possible techniques for extending the storage life of chilled pork. Food Technology in Australia, 38(4), 144–146.Google Scholar
  121. Shay, B.J. and Egan, A.F. (1990) Extending retail storage life of beef and lamb by modified atmosphere packaging. Food Australia, 42(8), 399–400.Google Scholar
  122. Sheridan, J.J., Doherty, A.M., Allen, P., McDowell, D.A., Blair, I.S. and Harrington, D. (1997) The effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of lamb primais, stored at different temperatures. Meat Science, 45(1), 107–117.Google Scholar
  123. Shrimpton, D.H. and Barnes, E.M. (1960) A comparison of oxygen and impermeable wrapping materials for the storage of chilled wrapped eviscerated poultry. Chemistry and Industry, 1492–1493.Google Scholar
  124. Silliker, J.H. (1981) The influence of atmospheres containing elevated levels of CO2 on the growth of psychrotrophic organisms in meat and poultry, in Psychrotrophic Micro-organisms in Spoilage and Pathogenicity (eds T.A. Roberts, G. Hobbs, J.H.B. Christian and N. Skovgaard). Academic Press, London, pp. 369–375.Google Scholar
  125. Silliker, J.H. and Wolfe, S.K. (1980) Microbiological safety considerations in controlled atmosphere storage of meats. Food Technology, 34(3), 59–63.Google Scholar
  126. Simard, R.E., Lee, B.H., Laleye, C.L. and Holley, R.A. (1983a) Effect of temperature, light and storage time on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of vacuum or nitrogen-packed frankfurters. Journal of Food Protection, 46(3), 188–195.Google Scholar
  127. Simard, R.E., Lee, B.H., Laleye, C.L. and Holley, R.A. (1983b) Effects of temperature, light and storage time on the microflora of vacuum or nitrogen-packed frankfurters. Journal of Food Protection, 46(3), 199–205.Google Scholar
  128. Smith, G.C., Simmons, R.D. and Carpenter, Z.L. (1977) Systems for prolonged storage of beef quarters. Journal of Food Protection, 40, 527–532.Google Scholar
  129. Snyder, H.E. and Skrdlant, H.B. (1966) The influence of metallic ions on the autoxidation of oxymyoglobin. Journal of Food Science, 31, 468–473.Google Scholar
  130. Sofos, J.N. (1985) Influence of sodium tripolyphosphate on the binding and antimicrobial properties of reduced NaCl-comminuted meat products. Journal of Food Science, 50, 1379–1383.Google Scholar
  131. Sorheim, O., Aasgaard Grini, J., Nissen, H., Andersen, H.J. and Lea, P. (1995) Pork loins stored in carbon dioxide. Colour and microbiological shelf life. Fleischwirtschaft, 75(5), 679–681.Google Scholar
  132. Sorheim, O., Kropf, D.H., Hunt, M.C., Karwoski, M.T. and Warren, K.E. (1996) Effects of modified gas atmosphere packaging on pork loin colour, display life and drip loss. Meat Science, 43(2), 203–212.Google Scholar
  133. Spencer, R. (1967) A study of the factors affecting the quality and shelf-life of vacuum-packed bacon and the behaviour of Wiltshire-cured bacon packed and stored under controlled conditions. Leatherhead Food RA Research Reports No. 136. Confidential: for Members only.Google Scholar
  134. Stannard, C.J., Evans, J.A. and Blood, R.M. (1988) Effect of sulfite and storage temperature on the microbiology of sausages. Leatherhead Food RA Research Reports No. 611. Confidential: for Members only.Google Scholar
  135. Stegeman, H., Hartog, B.J., Stekenlenburg, F.K. and den Hartog, J.P.M. (1988) The effect of heat pasteurization on Listeria monocytogenes in canned cured ham, in Tenth Symposium on Listeriosis Pecs, Hungary, Aug., 22–26, Abstract 55.Google Scholar
  136. Stiles, M.E. (1991) MAP of meat, poultry, and their products, in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Food (eds B. Ooraikul and M.E. Stiles). Ellis Horwood, London, pp. 118–147.Google Scholar
  137. Tanaka, N., Meske, L.M., Doyle, M.P. and Traisman, E. (1985) Plant trials of bacon prepared with lactic acid bacteria, sucrose and reduced amounts of sodium nitrite. Journal of Food Protection, 43, 450–457.Google Scholar
  138. Taylor, A.A. (1985) Packaging fresh meat, in Developments in Meat Science 3, Elsevier, London, pp. 89–113.Google Scholar
  139. Taylor, A.A. and Shaw, B.G. (1977) The effect of meat pH and package permeability on putrefaction and greening in vacuum packed beef. Journal of Food Technology, 12, 515–521.Google Scholar
  140. Thomson, J.E. and Risse, L.A. (1971) Dry ice in various shipping boxes for chilled poultry: effect on microbiological and organoleptic quality. Journal of Food Science, 36(1), 74–77.Google Scholar
  141. Timmons, D. (1976) ‘Dryer fryers’ — is CVP the ultimate bulk pack? Broiler Business, December, 10–17.Google Scholar
  142. Toth, L. and Potthast, K. (1984) Chemical aspects of the smoking of meat and meat products. Advances in Food Research, 29, 87–155.Google Scholar
  143. Trout, G.R. (1991) Prevention of colour defects in meat and meat products. Food Australia, 43(2), 52–56.Google Scholar
  144. Wabeck, C.J., Parmelee, C.E. and Stadelman, W.J. (1968) Carbon dioxide preservation of fresh poultry. Poultry Science, 47, 468–474.Google Scholar
  145. Wesley, R.D. and Stadelman, W.J. (1985) The effect of carbon dioxide packaging on detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken carcasses. Poultry Science, 64(4), 763–764.Google Scholar
  146. White, R. and Roberts, R. (1992) Developments in modified atmosphere and chilled foods packaging. PIRA International, Leatherhead, UK.Google Scholar
  147. Whitley, A.M. and D’Souza, M.D. (1989) A yellow discolouration of cooked cured meat products — isolation and characterisation of the causative organism. Journal of Food Protection, 52(6), 392–395.Google Scholar
  148. Wynne, E.S. and Foster, J.W. (1948) Physiological studies on spore germination, with special reference to Clostridium botulinum. III. Carbon dioxide and germination, with a note on carbon dioxide and aerobic spores. Journal of Bacteriology, 55, 331–339.Google Scholar
  149. Young, H., Youngs, A. and Light N. (1987) The effects of packaging on the growth of naturally occurring microflora in cooked, chilled foods used in the catering industry. Food Microbiology, 4, 317–327.Google Scholar
  150. Young, H., Macfie, H.J.H. and Light, N. (1988) Effect of packaging and storage on the sensory quality of cooked chicken menu items served from chilled vending machines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 48, 323–338.Google Scholar
  151. Zhao, Y., Wells, J.H. and McMillin, K.W. (1995) Dynamic changes of headspace gases in CO2 and N2 packaged fresh beef. Journal of Food Science, 60(3), 571–575.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Blakistone

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations