Cryogenic Measuring Methods
Measurements at cryogenic temperatures are more complicated since they are performed in cryostats. Low temperatures can be achieved by bath cooling with liquid helium (LHe), liquid hydrogen (LH2) or liquid nitrogen (LN2) at fixed temperature levels or by evaporation cooling of the sample chamber at a selected temperature which can be kept constant. The primary cooling in many cases can be done quickly by bath cooling.
KeywordsSample Chamber Guard Ring Primary Cool Torsion Pendulum Mechanical Testing Machine
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