Cryogenic Measuring Methods

  • Günther Hartwig
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


Measurements at cryogenic temperatures are more complicated since they are performed in cryostats. Low temperatures can be achieved by bath cooling with liquid helium (LHe), liquid hydrogen (LH2) or liquid nitrogen (LN2) at fixed temperature levels or by evaporation cooling of the sample chamber at a selected temperature which can be kept constant. The primary cooling in many cases can be done quickly by bath cooling.


Sample Chamber Guard Ring Primary Cool Torsion Pendulum Mechanical Testing Machine 
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General References

  1. (1).
    Scott, R. B.: Cryogenic Engineering Reprinted 1988 by Met.-Chem. Research Inc., Boulder, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Hudson, R. P.: Principles and application of magnetic cooling, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam - London (1972)Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Pobell, F., Matter and Methodes at Low Temperatures; Springer-Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics; Eds. R. C. Richardson and E. N. Smith, Addison Wesley, Redwood City, Col. (1988)Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    White,G,K; Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature Physics; Oxford Science Publications (1979)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Günther Hartwig
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Kernforschungszentrum KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.Universität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

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