Chemical and Physical Aspects of the Three Stages in Forming Polymer Networks

  • M. Gordon
  • T. C. Ward
  • R. S. Whitney


Features common to all kinds of network-forming processes are discussed in chronological order along the three stages into which such processes can generally be divided: i) processes without diffusion control, ii) with selective diffusion control of some component steps and iii) with diffusion control of all steps. Apart from the need to study processes in order to understand the resulting structures, and hence their properties, much is to be learnt from chemical kinetics about the properties of the systems in which they occur, e.g. about local molecular mobilities. For instance, polyaddition reactions may show a sudden gel (‘Trommsdorf’) effect due to the immobilisation of large radicals at the gel point, while polycondensations pass through this point without effects due to diffusion control becoming apparent. The critically branched state of matter (near a gel point) is connected with life and its processes, and is generally rich in quantitative information about network structure and properties. Chemical and physical evidence runs counter to the suggestion that bulk networks tend to shrink in the course of their formation. Curing and aging processes in highly cross-linked systems (stage iii) is governed by physics rather than chemistry, and can be treated in terms of the WLF transform.


Diffusion Control Urea Formaldehyde Fractional Conversion Urea Formaldehyde Resin Primary Chain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gordon
    • 1
  • T. C. Ward
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. S. Whitney
    • 1
  1. 1.University of EssexColchesterEngland
  2. 2.Virginia Polytechnic InstituteUSA

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