Properties of Alexandrite Lasers

  • John C. Walling
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB)

Abstract

The properties of electrons and electronic states are well suited for storing energy to be emitted as laser radiation. However, as quantum mechanics dictates all bound electronic states have discrete energy. Tunable lasers must be obtained, therefore, by means of either free electron states or by modifying (modulating) the electronic Hamiltonian. In certain classes of lasers, the electronic Hamiltonian is rendered continuously time variant by interactions with vibrations which participate directly in the stimulated emission event, such that part of the stored electronic energy is carried away by vibrational quanta. Dye lasers operate in this way as do a less well known but earlier class, the “phonon terminated,” or “vibronic” solid state laser, of which alexandrite is a prime example.

Keywords

Emission Cross Section Optical Damage Pump Chamber Mirror Site Alexandrite Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    L.F. Johnson, R.E. Dietz, and H.J. Guggenheim, “Optical maser oscillations from Ni2+ in MgF2 involving simultaneous emission of phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 11, pp 318–320, (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    References to this work can be found in reference #7 below.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    P.F. Moulton, A. Mooradian, and T.B. Reed, in Digest of Technical Papers, Tenth International Quantum Electronics Conference, Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978, Paper C. 2, p 630.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    H.P. Jenssen, R.F. Begley, R. Webb, and R.C. Morris, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Nd3+ in lanthanum beryllate”, J. Appl. Phys., 47, pp 1496–1500, (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    R.C. Morris and C.F. Cline, U.S. Patent 3,997,853, Dec 14, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J.C. Walling, H.P. Jenssen, R.C. Morris, E.W. O’Dell, and O.G. Peterson, Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 31 - Nov 3, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    John C. Walling, Otis G. Peterson, Hans P. Jenssen, Robert C. Morris, and E. Wayne O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite Lasers”, IEEE J. Quant. Elec.., QE-16, pp 1302–1315, (1980).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    G. Huber, Paper presented, 1st Annual Conference on Tunable Solid State Lasers, June 13–15, La Jolla Institute, La Jolla, CA, (1984).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Michael L. Shand and John C. Walling, “A tunable Emerald Laser,” IEEE J. Quant. Electr., QE-18, pp 1829–1830, (1982).Google Scholar
  10. [10] Pnma (D2h16)
    is described in Internationale Tabellen zur Bestimmung von Kristallstrukturen, 1, Berlin, Germany: Borntrager, (1937).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    E.F. Farrell, J.H. Fang, and R.E. Newnham, “Refinement of the Chrysoberyl Structure”, The American Mineralogist, 48, pp 804–810, (1963).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Robert E. Newnham, “Crystal Structure, Synthesis, and Magnetic Properties of Chrysoberyl,” Tech. Rept. #183, Laboratory for Insulation Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (Nov. 1963). Distributed by: National Technical Information Survice, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA, 22151.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Yukito Tanabe and Satoru Sugano, “On the Absorption Spectra of Complex Ions II,” J. Phys. Soc. Jap., 9, pp 766–779, (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Measurement performed by R. Taylor, Thermo-Physical Properties Research Center, Perdu University, Lafayette, IN. The value given is an average over a range of orientations.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    C.E. Forbes, “Analysis of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for Cr3+ in mirror and inversion symmetry sites of alexandrite (Al2_xCrxBeO4). Determination of the relative site occupancy by EPR.,” J. Chem. Phys., 79, pp 2590–2599, (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    R.C. Morris, Materials Laboratory, Corporate Technology, Allied Corporation, (1984).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    M.J. Weber, D. Milan, and W.L. Smith, “Nonlinear Refractive Index of Glasses and Crystals,” Opt. Eng., 17, pp 463–469, (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    M.L. Shand, J.C. Walling, and R.C. Morris, “Excited-State Absorption in the Pump Region of Alexandrite,” J. Appl. Phys., 52, pp 953–955, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    S.C. Seitel, “Alexandrite Laser Damage Testing,” Report to Allied Corporation, Michelson Laboratory, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA, 93555, (July 2, 1984 ).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    R.C. Powell, private communications.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    D.E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev., 136, pp A299–A306, (1964); -,“Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev., 136, pp A954 - A957, (1964).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Michael L. Shand and John C. Walling, “Excited-State Absorption in the Lasing Wavelength Region of Alexandrite,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electr., QE-18, pp 1152–1155, (1982).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    C.L. Sam, J.C. Walling, H.P. Jenssen, R.C. Morris, E.W. O’Dell, “Characteristics of alexandrite lasers in Q-switched and tuned operations,” Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), 247, pp 130–136, (1980).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    D.F. Heller and J.C. Walling, “High-power performance of alexandrite lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO), Anaheim, CA, Session WI4, June 19–22, (1984).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, New York: SpringerVerlag, (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    J.J. Barrett, Private commnication., Allied Corporation, Mt. Bethel, NJ.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    D.F. Heller, Private communication, Allied Corporation, Mt. Bethel, NJ.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    L. Horowitz, P. Papanestor and D.F. Heller, “Mode-locked Performance of Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ‘83 (to be published).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    J.C. Walling, and D.F. Heller, “Progress in Alexandrite Laser Technology Active Mode-Locked Performance”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ‘82, pp 550–558, (1982).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    V.N. Lisitsyn, V.N. Matrosov, V.P. Orekhova, E.V. Pestryakov, B.K. Sevast’yanov, V.I. Trunov, V.N. Zenin, and Yu. L Renigallo, “Generation of 0.7–0.8 u Picosecond Pulses in an Alexandrite Laser With Passive Mode-locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron., pp 368–370, (1982).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    H. Samelson and D.J. Harter, “High-pressure mercury arc lamp excited cw alexandrite lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Session W14, Anaheim CA, June 19–22, (1984).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    D.J. Harter, Allied Corporation, Mt. Bethel, N.J., private communications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Walling
    • 1
  1. 1.Allied CorporationMt. BethelUSA

Personalised recommendations