Systemic Vasculitis Syndromes

  • Jerry C. Jacobs
Part of the Comprehensive Manuals in Pediatrics book series (CM PEDIATRICS)


Vasculitis, inflammation in and around the blood vessels, which is sometimes associated with fibrinoid necrosis, may be seen in many of the conditions discussed in this book. In most rheumatic diseases, vasculitis is only one feature of a well-defined, complex, pathologic process (Fig. 7.1), and the disease (e.g., SLE or dermatomyositis) is best characterized by other distinctive diagnostic clinical and laboratory features. However, in the diverse and perhaps totally unrelated syndromes discussed in this chapter, vasculitis itself is the predominant pathologic process, and the clinical manifestations are primarily a direct result of the damage to the blood vessels (Table 7.1).


Kawasaki Disease Systemic Vasculitis Polyarteritis Nodosa Coronary Artery Aneurysm Mixed Cryoglobulinemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P: The spectrum of vasculitis: Clinical, pathologic immunologic and therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med 89 (part 1): 660–676, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fan PT, Davis JA, Somer T, et al.: A clinical approach to systemic vasculitis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 9: 248–304, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shigematsu I, Shibata S, Tamashiro H, et al.: Kawasaki disease continues to increase in Japan. Pediatrics 64: 386, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morens DM, Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES: National surveillance of Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics 65: 21–25, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kawasaki T: Infectious disease (Japan) 7:19–32, 1977; an abstract of the diagnostic guidelines in English and color photographs are available from the Japan MCLS Research Committee, Japan Red Cross Central Hospital, 4–1–22 Hiroo, Shibuyaku, Tokyo, 150, Japan.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Melish ME, Hicks RM, Larson EJ: Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in the United States. Am J Dis Child 130: 599–607, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kawasaki T, Kosaki F, Okawa S, et al. A new infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome prevailing in Japan. Pediatrics 54: 271–281, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kawasaki disease—it’s official and it’s here. Med World News 18 (December 12): 57–69, 1977.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A look at mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Consultant 18 (March): 60–61, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fetterman GH, Hashida Y: Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome: A disease widespread in Japan which demands our attention. Pediatrics 54: 268–270, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bures FA: Beau’s lines in mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Am J Dis Child 135: 383, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kitamura S, Kawashima Y, Kawachi K, et al.: Left ventricular function in patients with coronary arteritis due to acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome or related diseases. Am J Cardiol 40: 156–164, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanaka N, Semimoto K, Fukushima T, et al.: Pathological study of fatal MCLS: Relationship with infantile periarteritis nodosa. In: Shiokawa Y (ed.) Vascular Lesions of Collagen Diseases and Related Conditions. University Park Press Baltimore, 1977, pp. 296–307.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Landing BH, Larson EJ: Are infantile periarteritis nodosa with coronary artery involvement and fatal, mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome the same? Comparison of 20 patients from North America with patients from Hawaii and Japan. Pediatrics 59: 651–662, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fujiwara H, Hamashima Y: Pathology of the heart in Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics 61: 100–107, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fukushige J, Nihill MR, McNamara DG: Spectrum of cardiovascular lesions in mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome; analysis of eight cases. Am J Cardiol 45: 98107, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Onouchi Z, Tomizawa N, Goto M, et al.: Cardiac involvement and prognosis in acute mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Chest 68: 297–301, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yutani C, Go S, Kamiya T, et al.: Cardiac biopsy in Kawasaki disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med 105: 470–473, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18a.
    Sasaguri Y, Kato H: Regression of aneurysms in Kawasaki disease: A pathological study. J Pediatr 100: 225–231, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Kegel SM, Dorsey TJ, Rowen M, et al.: Cardiac death in mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Am J Cardiol 40: 282–286, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Larson EJ: Comparative pathology of vasculitis: Natural occurrence in lower animals. In: Shiokawa Y, (ed.) Vascular Lesions of Collagen Diseases and Related Conditions. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1977, pp. 347–355.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Kato S, Kimura M, Tsuji K, et al.: HLA antigens in Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics 61: 252–255, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Krensky AM, Berenberg W, Shanley K, et al.: HLA antigens in mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in New England. Pediatrics 67: 741–743, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Jacobs JC: Salicylate treatment of epidemic Kawasaki disease in New York City. Ther Drug Monitoring 1: 123–130, 1979.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Bell DM, Brink EW, Nitzkin JL, et al.: Kawasaki syndrome: Description of two outbreaks in the United States. N Engl J Med 304: 1568–1575, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Chung KJ, Rinaldi RE, Fulton DR, et al.: Cardiac involvement with Kawasaki disease in children from New England, abstracted. Am J Cardiol 47: 457, 1981.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Chusid MJ, Tang TT: Fever, diarrhea, anemia, rash, and acrocyanosis in a 2month-old girl. J Pediatr 93: 1052–1057, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Magilavy DB, Speert DP, Silver TM, et al.: Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome: Report of two cases complicated by gallbladder hydrops and diagnosed by ultrasound. Pediatrics 61: 699–702, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Germain BF, Moroney JD, Guggino GS, et al.: Anterior uveitis in Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr 97: 780–781, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Rennebohm, MJ, Burke, MJ, Crowe, W, et al.: Anterior uveitis in Kawasaki disease, abstracted. Arthritis Rheum. 24 (Suppl.): 88, 1981.Google Scholar
  31. 29A.
    Courtecuisse V, Decary F: Kawasaki disease: Association with uveitis in seven patients. Pediatrics 69: 376–378, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 30.
    Kato H, Koike S, Yokoyama T: Kawasaki disease: Effect of treatment on coronary artery involvement Pediatrics 63: 175–179, 1979.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Melish ME: Kawasaki syndrome (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome). Pediatr in Rev 2: 107–114, 1980.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Muller JE, Stone PH, Markis, JE, et al.: Let’s not let the genie escape from the bottle—again. N Engl J Med 304: 1294–1296, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    Kato H, Koike S, Yamamoto M, et al.: Coronary aneurysms in infants and young children with acute mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. J Pediatr. 86: 892–898, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    Glanz S, Bittner SJ, Berman MA, et al.: Regression of coronary artery aneurysms in infantile polyarteritis nodosa. N Engl J Med 294: 939–941, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 35.
    Kato H: Natural history of Kawasaki disease. In: Shiokawa Y (ed.) Vascular Lesions of Collagen Diseases and Related Conditions. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1977, pp. 282–295.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Yoshikawa J, Yanagihara K, Owaki T, et al.: Cross-sectional echocardiographic diagnosis of coronary artery aneurysms in patients with the mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Circulation 59: 133–139, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 37.
    Hiraishi S, Yashiro K, Kusano S: Noninvasive visualization of coronary arterial aneurysm in infants and young children with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with two-dimensional echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 43: 1225–1233, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 38.
    Yoshida H, Funabashi T, Nakaya S, et al.: Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome: A cross sectional echocardiographic diagnosis of coronary aneurysms. Am J Dis Chil 133: 1244–1247, 1979.Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Neches WH: Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome: Coronary artery disease and cross-sectional echocardiography. Am J Dis Child 133: 1233–1235, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    Lipson MH, Ament ME, Fonkalsrud EW: Ruptured hepatic artery aneurysm and coronary artery aneurysms with myocardial infarction in a 14-year-old boy: New manifestations of mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. J Pediatr 98: 933–936, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 41.
    Hicks RV, Melish ME, Paik Y, et al.: Kawasaki syndrome (KS) 2 to 10 years later, abstracted. Arthritis Rheum 25 (Suppl): 125, 1981.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    Sandiford FM, Vargo TA, Shih JY, et al.: Successful triple coronary artery bypass in a child with multiple coronary aneurysms due to Kawasaki’s disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 79: 283–287, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 43.
    Blau EB, Morris RF, Yunis EJ: Polyarteritis nodosa in older children. Pediatrics 60: 227–234, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    Reimold EW, Weinberg AG, Fink CW, et al.: Polyarteritis in children. Am J Dis Child 130: 534–541, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    Magilavy DB, Petty RE, Cassidy JT, et al.: A syndrome of childhood polyarteritis. J Pediatr 91: 25–30, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 46.
    Ettlinger RE, Nelson AM, Burke EC, et al.: Polyarteritis nodosa in childhood, a clinical pathologic study. Arthritis Rheum 22: 820–825, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 47.
    Woodward AH, Andreini PH: Periosteal new bone formation in polyarteritis nodosa. Arthritis Rheum 17: 1017–1025, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    Sergent JS, Lochshin MD, Christian CL, et al.: Vasculitis with hepatitis B antigenemia. Medicine 55: 1–18, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Duffy J, Lidsky MD, Sharp JT, et al.: Polyarthritis, polyarteritis and hepatitis B. Medicine 55: 19–37, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Reznik VM, Mendoza SA, Self TW, et al.: Hepatitis B-associated vasculitis in an infant. J Pediatr 98: 252–254, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    McMahon BJ, Bender TR, Templin DW, et al.: Vasculitis in Eskimos living in an area hyperendemic for hepatitis B. JAMA 244: 2180–2182, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    Ingelfinger, JR, McCluskey RT, Schneeberger EE: Necrotizing arteritis in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. J Pediatr 91: 228–232, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Bamji A, Salisbury, R: Cytomegalovirus and vasculitis. Br Med J 1: 623–624, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 54.
    Hoffman GS, Franck WA: Infectious mononucleosis, autoimmunity and vasculitis. A case report. JAMA 241: 2735–2736, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 55.
    Sergent, JS, Christian CL: Necrotizing vasculitis after acute serous otitis media. Ann Intern Med 81: 195–199, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 56.
    Soter NA, Mihm MC, Colten HR: Cutaneous necrotizing venulitis in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 95: 197–201, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Berdischewsky M, Pollack M, Young LS, et al.: Circulating immune complexes in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Res 14: 830–833, 1980.Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Wees SJ, Oh SJ: Sural nerve biopsies in systemic vasculitis, abstracted. Arthritis Rheum 24 (Suppl.): 88, 1981.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Bron KM, Strott CA, Shapiro AP: The diagnostic value of angiographic observations in polyarteritis nodosa. Arch Intern Med 116: 450–454, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Hilal SK, Solomon GE, Gold A, et al.: Primary cerebral arterial occlusive disease in children. Radiology 99: 71–86, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 61.
    Fauci AS, Katz P, Haynes BF, et al.: Cyclophosphamide therapy of severe systemic necrotizing vasculitis. N Engl J Med 301: 235–238, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    Zweiman B: A new therapeutic strategy in systemic vasculitis? Editorial. N Engl J Med 301: 266–267, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Cunningham RJ III, Gilfoil M, Cavallo T, et al.: Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in children: A report of thirteen cases and a review of the literature. Pediatr Res 14: 128–132, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Cohen RD, Conn DL, Ilstrup DM: Clinical features, prognosis and response to treatment in polyarteritis. Mayo Clin Proc 55: 146–155, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Fauci AS, Doppman JL, Wolff SM: Cyclophosphamide-induced remissions in advanced polyarteritis nodosa. Am J Med 64: 890–894, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Chumbley LC, Harrison EG, Jr, DeRemee RA: Allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Report and analysis of 30 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 52: 477–484, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Farooki ZQ, Brough AJ, Green EW: Necrotizing arteritis. Am J Dis Child 128: 837–840, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 68.
    McCombs RP: Diseases due to immunologic reactions in the lung. N Engl J Med 286: 1186–1194, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Case 46–1980. N Engl J Med 303: 1218–1225, 1980.Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Vincent FM: Granulomatous angiitis. N Engl J Med 296: 452, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Sandhu R, Alexander WS, Hornabrook RW, et al.: Granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system. Arch Neurol 36: 433–435, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Pasternak JF, DeVivo DC, Prensky AL: Steroid-responsive encephalomyelitis in childhood. Neurology 30: 481–486, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Nakao K, Ikeda M, Shin-ichi K, et al.: Takayasu’s arteritis: Clinical report of eighty-four cases and immunological studies of seven cases. Circulation 35: 1141 1155, 1967.Google Scholar
  76. 74.
    Bonventre MV: Takayasu’s disease revisited. NY State J Med 74: 1960–1967, 1974.Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    Lupi-Herrera E, Sanchez-Torres G, Marcushamer J, et al.: Takayasu’s arteritis. Clinical study of 107 cases. Am Heart J 93: 94–103, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Tanaka N, Tanaka H, Toyama Y, et al.: Paroxysmal hypertension in aortitis syndrome. Am Heart J 90: 369–375, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Lande A, Rossi P: The value of total aortography in the diagnosis of Takayasu’s arteritis. Radiology 114: 287–297, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 480.
    : Systemic Vasculitis SyndromesGoogle Scholar
  81. 78.
    Lande A, Bard R, Rossi P, et al.: Takayasu’s arteritis. NY State J Med 76: 1744 1482, 1976.Google Scholar
  82. 79.
    Wiggelinkhuizen J, Cremin BJ: Takayusu arteritis and renovascular hypertension in childhood. Pediatrics 62: 209–217, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 80.
    Pantell RH, Goodman BW Jr: Takayasu’s arteritis: The relationship with tuberculosis. Pediatrics 67: 84–88, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 81.
    Abe K, Miyazaki S, Kusaka T, et al.: Elevated plasma renin activity in aortitis syndrome. Jap Heart J 17: 1–11, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 82.
    Rotenstein D, Gibbas DL, Majmudar B, et al.: Familial granulomatous arteritis associated with polyarthritis of juvenile onset. N Eng J Med 306: 86–90, 1982.Google Scholar
  86. 83.
    Fauci AS, Wolff SM: Wegener’s granulomatosis: Studies in eighteen patients and a review of the literature. Medicine 52: 535–561, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 84.
    Reza JJ, Dornfield L, Goldberg LS, et al.: Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 18: 501–506, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 85.
    Appel GB, Gee B, Kashgarian M, et al.: Wegener’s granulomatosis-clinical-pathologic correlations and long-term course. Am J Kidney Dis 1: 27–37, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 86.
    Moorthy AV, Chesney RW, Segar WE, et al. Wegener’s granulomatosis in childhood: Prolonged survival following cytotoxic therapy. J Pediatr 91: 616–618, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 87.
    Orlowski JP, Clough JD, and Dyment PG,: Wegener’s granulomatosis in the pediatric age group. Pediatrics 61: 83–90, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 88.
    Baliga R, Chang CH, Bidani AK, et al.: A case of generalized Wegener’s granulomatosis in childhood: Successful therapy with cyclophosphamide. Pediatrics 61: 286–290, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 89.
    Harrison HL, Linshaw MA, Lindsley CB, et al.: Bolus corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide for initial treatment of Wegener’s granulomatosis. JAMA 244: 1599 1600, 1980.Google Scholar
  93. 90.
    Koretz SH, Feigenbaum PA, Raitt JW: Long-term followup of Wegener’s granulomatosis patients treated with cytotoxic agents plus steroids, abstracted. Arthritis Rheum 23: 706, 1980.Google Scholar
  94. 91.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case no. 43–1981. N Engl J Med 305: 999–1008, 1981.Google Scholar
  95. 92.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CRB, Friedman PJ: Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 3: 457–558, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 93.
    Israel HL, Patchefsky AS, Saldana JJ: Wegener’s granulomatosis, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and benign lymphocytic angiitis and granulomatosis of the lung. Recognition and treatment. Ann Intern Med 87: 691–699, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 94.
    DeRemee RA, Weiland LH, McDonald TJ: Polymorphic reticulosis, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, two diseases or one? Mayo Clin Proc 53: 634–640, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 95.
    Katzenstein AL, Carrington CB, Liebow AA: Lymphomatoid granulomatosis; a clinicopathologic study of 152 cases. Cancer 43: 360–373, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 95A.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Costa J, et al.: Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Prospective clinical and therapeutic experience over 10 years. N Engl J Med 306: 68–74, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 96.
    Fauci AS, Johnson RE, Wolff SM: Radiation therapy of midline granuloma. Ann Intern Med 84: 140–147, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 97.
    Levo Y: Nature of cryoglobulinemia. Lancet 1: 285–287, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 98.
    Meltzer M, Franklin EC: Cryoglobulinemia-a study of 29 patients. Am J Med 40: 828–836, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 99.
    Gorevic PD, Kassab HJ, Levo Y, et al.: Mixed cryoglobulinemia: Clinical aspects and long-term follow-up of 40 patients. Am J Med 69: 287–308, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 100.
    Reza MJ, Roth BE, Pops MA, et al.: Intestinal vasculitis in essential, mixed cryoglobulinemia. Ann Intern Med 81: 632–634, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 101.
    Gamble CN, Ruggles SW: The immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritis associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia. N Eng J Med 299: 81–84, 1978.Google Scholar
  106. 102.
    Waterman JR, Winkelstein JA, Berzofsky RN, et al.: Early complement component depletion and mixed cryoglobulinemia in a “healthy” family. Arthritis Rheum 22: 1006–1012, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 103.
    Farivar M, Wands JR, Benson GD, et al.: Cryoprotein complexes and peripheral neuropathy in a patient with chronic active hepatitis. Gastroenterology 71: 490–492, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 104.
    Cosgriff TM, Arnold WJ: Digital vasospasm and infarction associated with hepatitis B antigenemia. JAMA 235: 1362–1363, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 105.
    McDuffie FC, Sams WM Jr, Maldonado JE, et al.: Hypocomplementemia with cutaneous vasculitis and arthritis. Mayo Clin Proc 48: 340–347, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 106.
    Feig PU, Soter NA, Yager HM, et al.: Vasculitis with urticaria, hypocomplementemia, and multiple system involvement. JAMA 236: 2065–2068, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 107.
    Ludivico CL, Myers AR, Maurer K: Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis with glomerulonephritis and pseudotumor cerebri. Arthritis Rheum 22: 1024–1028, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 108.
    Miller JJ, Fries JF: Simultaneous vasculitis in a mother and newborn infant. J Pediatr 87: 443–445, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 109.
    Elkon KB, Hughes GRV, Catovsky D, et al.: Hairy-cell leukemia with polyarteritis nodosa. Lancet 2: 280–282, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 110.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Case 11–1979. N Engl J Med 300: 610–617, 1979.Google Scholar
  115. 111.
    Vasily DB, Tyler WB: Propylthiouracil-induced cutaneous vasculitis. JAMA 243: 458–461, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 112.
    Lanzkowsky P, Jayabose SJ, Shende R, et al.: Vasculitis as a complication of high-dose methotrexate in the treatment of acute leukemia. Am J Dis Child 130: 675, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 113.
    Dewar HA, Peaston MJT. Three cases resembling polyarteritis nodosa arising during treatment with guanethidine. Br Med J 2: 609, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 114.
    Golbranson FL, Lurie L, Vance RM, et al.: Multiple extremity amputations in hypotensive patients treated with dopamine. JAMA 243: 1145–1146, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 115.
    Citron BP, Halpern M, McCarron M, et al.: Necrotizing angiitis associated with drug abuse. N Engl J Med 283: 1003–1011, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 116.
    Halper M, Citron BP: Necrotizing angiitis associated with drug abuse. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 3: 663–671, 1971.Google Scholar
  121. 117.
    Wacker FJ, Tytojat GN, Vreeken J: Necrotizing vasculitis and ulcerative colitis. Br Med J 4: 83–84, 1974.Google Scholar
  122. 118.
    Forrest JA, Shearman DJ: Pulmonary vasculitis and ulcerative colitis. Am J Dig Dis 20: 482–486, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 119.
    Edwards KR: Hemorrhagic complications of cerebral arteritis. Arch Neurol 34: 549–552, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 120.
    Ho EC, Moss AJ: The syndrome of “mesenteric arteritis” following surgical repair of aortic coarctation. Pediatrics 49: 40–45, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 121.
    Diaz-Perez JL, Winkelmann RK: Cutaneous periarteritis nodosa. Arch Dermatol 110: 407–414, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 122.
    Cherubin CE: So-called cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. NY State J Med 66: 1673 1678, 1966.Google Scholar
  127. 123.
    Winkelmann RK, Schroeter AL, Kierland RR, et al.: Clinical studies of livedoid vasculitis. Mayo Clin Proc 49: 746–750, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 124.
    Katz SI, Gallin JI Hertz KC, et al.: Erythema elevatum diutinum: Skin and systemic manifestations, immunologic studies, and successful treatment with dapsone. Medicine 56: 443–455, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 125.
    O’Duffy JD, Behçet’s syndrome. Bull Rheum Dis 29: 972–979, 1978.Google Scholar
  130. 126.
    Shimizu T, Ehrlich GE, Inaba G, et al.: Behçet disease (Behçet syndrome). Semin Arthritis Rheum 8: 223–260, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 127.
    Fukuda Y, Sakuma Y, Sumita M: Pathologic studies of vascular changes in Behçet’s disease. In: Shiokawa, Y (ed.) Vascular Lesions of Collagen Diseases and Related Conditions. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1977, pp. 212–225.Google Scholar
  132. 128.
    Murakami T: Pathologic changes in the large blood vessels caused by Behçet’s disease, especially by neuro-Behçet’s disease. Bull Rheum Dis: S 29: 229–235, 1978.Google Scholar
  133. 129.
    Berman L, Trappler B, Jenkins T: Behçet’s syndrome: A family study and the elucidation of a genetic role. Ann Rheum Dis 38: 118–121, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 130.
    Lebwohl O, Forde KA, Berdon WE, et al.: Ulcerative esophagitis and colitis in a pediatric patient with Behçet’s syndrome: Response to steroid therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 68: 550–555, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 131.
    O’Duffy JD, Goldstein NP: Neurologic involvement in seven patients with Behçet’s disease. Am J Med 61: 170–178, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 132.
    Mizushima Y, Matsumura N: Chemotaxis of leukocytes and colchicine treatment in Behçet’s disease. J Rheumatol 6: 108–110, 1979.Google Scholar
  137. 133.
    Merieux Pde, Spitler LE, Paulus HE: Treatment of Behçet’s syndrome with levamisole. Arthritis Rheum 24: 64–70, 1981.Google Scholar
  138. 134.
    Cheson BD, Bluming AZ, Alroy J: Cogan’s syndrome: A systemic vasculitis. Am J Med 60: 549–555, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 135.
    Kundell SP, Ochs HD: Cogan’s syndrome in childhood. J Pediatr 97: 96–98, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 136.
    Haynes BF, Kaiser-Kupfer MI, Mason P, et al.: Cogan’s syndrome: Studies in thirteen patients, long-term follow-up, and a review of the literature. Medicine 59: 426–441, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 137.
    Haynes BF, Pikus A, Kaiser-Kupfer M, et al.: Successful treatment of sudden hearing loss in Cogan’s syndrome with corticosteroids. Arthritis Rheum 24: 501–503, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 138.
    Gelfand ML, Kantor T, Gorstein F: Cogan’s syndrome with cardiovascular involvement: Aortic insufficiency. Bull NY Acad Med 48: 647–660, 1972.Google Scholar
  143. 139.
    Jacobs JC: Arthritis as a manifestation of connective tissue disease. In: Moore TD (ed.) Arthritis in Childhood: Report of the Eightieth Ross Conference on Pediatric Research. Ross Laboratories Columbus, Ohio, 1981, pp. 18–23.Google Scholar
  144. 140.
    Case reports of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case no. 44–1980. N Engl J Med 303: 1103–1111, 1980.Google Scholar
  145. 141.
    Lie JT, Gordon LP Titus JL: Juvenile temporal arteritis. JAMA 234: 496–499, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 142.
    Golden GT, Fox JW, Williams GS, et al.: Traumatic aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery. JAMA 234: 517–518, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 143.
    Huston KA, Combs JJ, Lie JT, Giuliani ER: Left atrial myxoma simulating peripheral vasculitis. Mayo Clin Proc 53: 752–756, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 144.
    Byrd WE, Matthews OP, Hunt RE: Left atrial myxoma presenting as a systemic vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum 23: 240–243, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 145.
    McKusick VM: Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue, 4th ed. Mossby, St. Louis, 1972.Google Scholar
  150. 146.
    Shih VE, Abroms IF, Johnson JL, et al.: Sulfite oxidase deficiency. N Engl J Med 297: 1022–1028, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 147.
    Radtke WE, Kazmier FJ, Rutherford BD: Cardiovascular complications of pheochromocytoma crisis. Am J Cardiol 35: 701–705, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 148.
    Sisson JC, Frager MS, Valk TW, et al.: Scintigraphic localization of pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med 305: 12–17, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 149.
    Ambruso DR, Jacobson LJ, Hathaway WE: Inherited antithrombin-IIII deficiency and cerebral thrombosis in a child. Pediatrics 65: 125–131, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 150.
    Carlson CB, Harvey FH, Loop J: Progressive alternating hemiplegia in early childhood with basal artery stenosis and telangiectasia (Moyamoya syndrome). Neurology 23: 734–744, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 151.
    Goldberg HJ: Moyamoya associated with peripheral vascular occlusive disease. Arch Dis Child 49: 964–966, 1974.Google Scholar
  156. 152.
    Goldie W: Headache, hemiparesis, and hemianopsia in a five-year-old. Hosp Pract 17: 200–201, 1982.Google Scholar
  157. 153.
    Loughlin GM, Taussig LM, Murphy SA, et al.: Immune-complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage simulating Goodpasture’s syndrome. J Pediatr 93: 181–184, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 154.
    Davis JP, Chesney PJ, Wand PJ, et al.: Toxic-shock syndrome. Epidemiologic features, recurrence, risk factors, and prevention. N Engl J Med 303: 1429–1435, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 155.
    Shands KN, Schmid MD, Dan BB, et al.: Toxic-shock syndrome in menstruating women. Association with tampon use and Staphylococcus aureus and clinical features in 52 cases. N Engl J Med 303: 1436–1442, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 156.
    Chesney PJ, Davis JP, Purdy WK, et al.: Clinical manifestations of toxic shock syndrome. JAMA 246: 741–748, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 157.
    Reingold AL, Shands KN, Dan BB, et al.: Toxic-shock syndrome not associated with menstruation. A review of 54 cases. Lancet 1: 1–4, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerry C. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Pediatric Rheumatology Department of Pediatrics College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations