Diagnostic Procedures for Lesions of the Cervix

  • Alex Ferenczy


In the United States for a number of years colposcopy8 and exfoliative cytology were regarded as competitive methods in the early detection of cervical neoplasia. In the last decade, however, colposcopy became accepted and used as a complementary technique to cytology.4 Cytology is a laboratory method of detection, based on the evaluation of the morphologic alterations of the exfoliated cells. Colposcopy is a clinical method designed for the early diagnosis of noninvasive, preclinical invasive, and frank invasive cervical cancers. Colposcopy evaluates the modifications in the surface vascular system of cervical epithelium, which occur in response to biochemical and metabolic alterations in neoplastic tissues. When colposcopy and cytology are combined their diagnostic accuracy is near 100%.1,8 The colposcope (Figure 8.1) is a stereoscopic microscope with focused illumination that provides a three-dimensional image of tissue surfaces. It is particularly useful in the cervix, vagina, and vulva. When the instrument is positioned 6 to 7 cm from the introitus, the image is magnified from 10 to 40 times.


Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Acridine Orange Cervical Neoplasia Plate VIII Exfoliative Cytology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Coppleson, M., Pixley, E., and Reid, B. Colposcopy. A Scientific and Practical Approach to the Cervix in Health and Disease, 1st ed. Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hinselmann, H. Colposcopy, 1st ed. Trans. by Lang, W. R. Girardet, Wuppertal-Elberfeld, 1955.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kolstad, P., and Staff, A. Atlas of Colposcopy, 1st ed. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Navratil, E., Burghardt, E., Bajardi, F., and Nash, W. Simultaneous colposcopy and cytology used in screening for carcinoma of the cervix. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 1292, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Richart, R. M. A clinical staining test for the in vivo delineation of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 86: 703, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Richart, R. M. The correlation of Schiller-positive areas on the exposed portion of the cervix with intraepithelial neoplasia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 90: 697, 1964.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richart, R. M., and Vaillant, H. W. Influence of cell collection technic upon cytologic diagnosis. Cancer 18: 1474, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Staff, A., and Mattingly, R. F. Colposcopic diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. Obstet. Gynecol. 41: 168, 1973.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilbanks, G. D., and Carter, B. Fluorescence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia induced by tetracycline and acridine orange. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 106: 726, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex Ferenczy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations