Cytology of the Female Genital Tract

  • Felix de Narvaez
  • Rita Blaustein


Diagnostic cytology is based on the fact that cells exfoliated or collected from the cervix and the vagina reflect features of the tissue from which they arise. The main application of cytology to the female genital tract is in the early diagnosis of precancerous and cancerous lesions. Patients who have been treated for cervical cancer can be followed cytologically for response to radiation and recurrence of the disease.


Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Endometrial Cell Intermediate Cell Cytologic Diagnosis Vaginal Smear 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bamford, S. B., Mitchell, G. W. Jr., Bardawil, W. A., and Casin, C. M. Vaginal cytology in polycystic ovarian disease. Acta Cytol. 9: 332, 1965.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benson, P. A. Psammoma bodies found in cervical-vaginal smears. Acta Cytol. 17: 64, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beyer-Boon, M. E. Psammoma bodies in cervico-vaginal smears: An indicator of the presence of ovarian carcinoma. Acta Cytol. 18: 41, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burk, J. R., Lehman, H. F., and Wolf, F. S. Inadequacy of Papanicolaou smears in the detection of endometrial cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 291: 191, 1974.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fentanes de Torres, E., and Benitez-Bribiesca, L. Cytologic detection of vaginal parasitosis. Acta Cytol. 17: 252, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frost, J. K. Exfoliative Cytology. In Novak, E. R., and Woodruff, J. D., eds., Gynecologic and Obstetric Pathology, 6th ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1967.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Graham, R. M. The Cytologic Diagnosis of Cancer, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1963.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gravlee, L. C. Jr. Jet irrigation method for the diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Its principle and accuracy. Obstet. Gynecol. 34: 168, 1969.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hofmeister, F. J. Endometrial Biopsy: Another look. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118: 773, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hughes, R. R. Errors in the use of the Pap smear. Southern M. J. 65: 575, 1972.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    International agreement on histological terminology for the lesions of the uterine cervix. Acta Cytol. 6: 255, 1962.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Josey, Y. W., Nahmias, A., and Naib, Z. M. Viral and virus-like infections of the female genital tract. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 12: 161, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Keebler, C. M., and Wied, G. L. The estrogen test: An aid in differential cyto-diagnosis. Acta Cytol. 18: 483, 1974.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kohl, G. C., and Larson, C. P. Office endometrial biopsies. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118: 406, 1974.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koss, L. G. Diagnostic Cytology and Its Histopathologic Bases, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, 1968.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koss, G. L., Melamed, M. R., and Mayer, K. The effect of busulfan on human epithelia. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 44: 385, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lui, W. An Introduction to Gynecological Exfoliative Cytology. Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, 1959.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patten, S. F. Jr. Diagnostic Cytology of the Uterine Cervix. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1969.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reagan, J. W., and Patten, S. F. Jr., eds. The female reproductive tract, in The Manual for the Atlas of Cytology. Chicago, Am. Soc. Clin. Pathol., 1967.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reyniak, J. V., Sedlis, A., Stone, D., and Connell, E. Cytohormonal findings in patients using various forms of contraception. Acta Cytol. 13: 315, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richart, R. M. Natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 10: 748, 1967.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Richart, R. M., and Vaillant, H. W. The irrigation smear: False negative rates in a population with cervical neoplasia. JAMA 192: 199, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Taft, P. D., Robboy, S., Herbst, A. L., and Scully, R. E. Cytology of clear cell adenocarcinoma of genital tract in young females: Review of 95 cases from the registry. Acta Cytol. 18: 279, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tasker, J. T., and Collins, J. A. Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118: 344, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Te Linde, R. W. Demonstration of the relationship of carcinoma-in-situ to invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115: 1022, 1973.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Torres, J. E., Holmquist, N. D., and Danos, M. L. The endometrial irrigation smear in the detection of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Acta Cytol. 13: 163, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wied, G. L. Interpretation of inflammatory reactions in vagina, cervix and endocervix by means of cytologic smears. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 233, 1957.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wied, G. L. Cytology during pregnancy. in Greenhill, J. P., ed., Yearbook of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1966, pp. 15–33.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wied, G. L., ed. Symposium: Hormonal cytology. Acta Cytol. 12:87, 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix de Narvaez
  • Rita Blaustein

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations