EPR Spectroscopic Evidence of Free Radical Outflow from an Isolated Muscle Bed in Exercising Humans
Animal research has established much about the species and mechanisms associated with free radical generation in exercising muscle tissue (Davies et al., 1982; Jackson et al., 1985; Reid, 2001). However, the direct molecular detection of free radical species in exercising humans remains a formidable analytical challenge due primarily to their high reactivity and low steady-state concentration. Consequently, investigators have typically relied on exercise-induced changes in biological footprints formed as a consequence of the molecular interaction of free radicals with cellular components containing lipids and proteins. However, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a technique capable of detecting free radicals directly, yet its application to the physiological environment has to date been limited due to the intricate nature of biological materials.
KeywordsSpin Trap Spin Adduct Knee Extensor Exercise Intermittent Hypoxic Training Typical Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Andersen, P., and Saltin, B., 1985, Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. J Phys. 366: 233–249.Google Scholar
- Anderson, R.A., Evans, M.L., Ellis, G.R., Graham, J., Morris, K., Jackson, S.K., Lewis, M.J., Rees, A., and Frenneaux, M.P., 2001, The relationships between post-prandial lipaemia, endothelial function and oxidative stress in healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 154: 475–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jackson M.J., Papa, S., Bolanos, J., Bruckdorfer, R., Carlsen, H., Elliott, R.M., Flier, J., Griffiths, H.R., Heales, S., Holst, B., Lorusso, M., Lund, E., Oivind Moskaug, J., Moser, U., Di Paola, M., Cristina Polidori, M., Signorile, A., Stahl, W., Vina-Ribes, J., and Astley, S.B. 2002. Antioxidants, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, gene induction and mitochondrial function. Mol. Aspects. Med. 23: 209–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laurindo, F.R.M., de Almeida Pedro, M., Barbeiro, H.V., Pileggi, F., Cravalho, M.H.C., Augusto, O., and da Luz, P.L. 1994, Vascular free radical release. Ex vivo and in vivo evidence for a flow-dependent endothelial mechanism. Circ Res. 74: 700–709.Google Scholar
- Richardson, R.S., Newcomer, S.C., and Noyszewski, E.A. 2001, Skeletal muscle intracellular P02 assessed by myoglobin desaturation: response to graded exercise. JApp! Physiol. 91: 2679–85.Google Scholar