The development of mineralized hard parts in animals is a fairly recent development in geologic time. Five hundred and fifty million years ago fossils with mineralized skeletons appear in the geologic record. Although the source and form of minerals used by organisms is diverse, the assumption that vertebrates used calcium phosphate (CaPO4) and invertebrates use calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to form hard parts is useful and widespread.


Noncollagenous Protein Brachiopod Shell Bacterial Collagenase Tendon Collagen Bovine Dentin 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Tuross
    • 1
  • L. W. Fisher
    • 2
  1. 1.Geophysical LaboratoryCarnegie Institution of WashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Bone Research Branch, National Institute of Dental ResearchNational Institute of HealthBethesdaUSA

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