Medakafish Embryonic Stem Cells as a Model for Genetic Improvement of Aquaculture Livestocks
Transgenesis, the transfer into the germ line of genes controlling particular traits of interest, is attractive for genetic improvement of aquaculture production. For example, salmon transgenic for a homologous growth hormone (GH) gene driven by a piscine regulatory sequence averaged more than 11-fold heavier than the non-transgenic controls (Devlin et al., 1994). Up to now, transgenic fish have been produced by introduction of a gene expression cassette directly into freshly fertilized eggs or oocytes. Unfortunately after gene delivery, the fate of transgenes is not controllable or selectable. In most cases the founder fish which developed from manipulated eggs were highly mosaic for the introduced gene. Desired integration of a single copy of the transgene and its proper expression is rarely achieved (for review see Iyengar et al., 1996). This problem of transgene integration and expression may be overcome by using embryonic stem (ES) cell lines as an alternative approach for gene transfer.
KeywordsEmbryonic Stem Cell Homologous Recombination Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Embryonic Stem Cell Line Transgenic Fish
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