The Limbic System

Emotion, Laterality, and Unconscious Mind
  • Rhawn Joseph
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)


Many members of Western civilization experience emotion as a potentially overwhelming force that warrants and yet resists control—as something irrational that can happen to you (“you make me so angry”). Perhaps in part, this schism between the rational and the emotional is attributable to the raw energy of emotion having its source in the nuclei of the ancient limbic lobe—what some have referred to as the reptilian brain, a series of nuclei that first made their phylogenetic appearance long before man walked upon this earth. Although over the course of evolution a new brain (neocortex) has developed, we remain creatures of emotion. We have not completely emerged from the phylogenetic swamps of our original psychic existence. The old limbic brain has not been replaced.


Temporal Lobe Physiological Psychology Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Limbic System Lateral Hypothalamus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adey, W. R., Dunlop, C. W., Hendrix, C. E. (1960). Hippocampal slow waves: Distribution and phase relations in the course of approach learning. Archives of Neurology, 3, 74–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adey, W. R., Dunlop, C. W., Sunderland, S. (1958). A survey of rhinencephalic interconnections with the brainstem. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 110, 173–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aggleton, J. P., Burton, M. J., Passingham, R. E. (1980). Cortical and subcortical afferents to the amygdala of the rhesus monkey. Brain Research, 190, 347–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad, S. S., Harvey, J. A. (1968). Long-term effect of septal lesions and social experience on shockelicited fighting in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 66, 596–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alpers, N. (1940). Personality and emotional disorders associated with hypothalamic lesions. Association of Researchers in Nervous and Mental Disease, 20, 725–752.Google Scholar
  6. Anand, B. K., Dua, S. (1956). Electrical stimulation of the limbic system of brain (“visceral brain”) in the waking animal. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 44, 107–119.Google Scholar
  7. Andy, O. J., Stephan, H. (1961). Septal nuclei in the soricidae (insectivores). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 117, 251–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Atweh, S. F., Kuhar, M. J. (1977). Autoradiographic localization of opiate receptors in rat brain. Brain Research, 129, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagshaw, M., Benzies, S. (1968). Multiple measures of the orienting reaction and their dissociation after amygdalectomy in monkeys. Experimental Neurology, 27, 31–40.Google Scholar
  10. Baldwin, M., Lewis, S. A., Bach, S. A. (1959). The effects of lysergic acid after cerebral ablation. Neurology (New York), 9, 469–474.Google Scholar
  11. Bard, P., Mountcastle, V. B. (1948). Some forebrain mechanisms involved in expression of rage with special reference to suppression of angry behavior. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 27, 362–404.Google Scholar
  12. Bear, D. M., Fedio, P. (1977). Quantitative analysis of interictal behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 34, 454–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bear, D. M. (1979). Temporal lobe epilepsy: a syndrome of sensory-limbic hyperconnexion. Cortex, 15, 357–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bear, D. M., Leven, K., Blumer, D., Chetam, D., Ryder, J. (1982). Interictal behavior in hospitalized temporal lobe epileptics: relationship to idiopathic psychiatric syndromes. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 45, 481–488.Google Scholar
  15. Berg, W. K., Berg, K. M. (1978). Psychophysiological development in infancy. State, sensory function, and attention. Psychological Bulletin, 47, 103–170.Google Scholar
  16. Blakemore, C. (1977). Mechanics of the mind. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Blanchard, R. J., Blanchard, D. C. (1968). Limbic lesions and reflexive fighting. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 66, 603–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bleier, R., Byne, W., Siggelkow, I. (1982). Cytoarchitectonic sexual dimorphisms of the medial preoptic and anterior hypothalamic area in guinea pig, rat, hamster, and mouse. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 212, 118–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Botez, M. I., Olivier, M., Vezina, J-I., Botez, T., Kaufman, B. (1985). Deffective revisualization: Dissociation between cognitive and imagistic thought. Case report and short review of the literature, Cortex, 21, 375–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brady, J. V. (1960). Temporal and emotional effects related to intracranial electrical self-stimulation. In E. Ramsey D. O. Doherty (Eds.), Electrical studies on the unanesthetized brain (pp. 301–333 ). New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  21. Brady, J. V., Nauta, W. J. H. (1953). Subcortical mechanisms in emotional behavior: Affective changes following septal lesions in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 46, 339–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Broughton, R. (1982). Human consciousness and sleep/waking rhythms: A review of some neuropsychological considerations. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 193–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown, J. W. (1983). Early prenatal development of the human precommissural septum. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 215, 331–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, S., Schaefer, A. E. (1888). An investigation into the functions of the occipital and temporal lobe of the monkey’s brain. Philadelphia Transactions of the Royal Society of Britain, 179, 303–327.Google Scholar
  25. Bunnell, B. N. (1966). Amygdaloid lesions and social dominance in the hooded rat. Psychonomic Science, 6, 93–94.Google Scholar
  26. Carpenter, M. B. (1977). Human Neuroanatomy. New York. Williams WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlsen, J., De Olmos, J., Heimer, L. (1982). Tracing of two-neuron pathways in the olfactory system by the aid of transneuronal degeneration: Projection to the amygdaloid body and hippocampal formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 208, 196–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Casagrande, V. A., Joseph, R. (1980). Morphological effects of monocular deprivation and recovery on the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in galago. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 194, 413–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cairns, R. B. (1967). The attachment behavior of mammals. Psychological Review, 73, 409–426.Google Scholar
  30. Chapman, L. F., Walter, R. D. (1965). Actions of lysergic acid dienthalamid on averaged human cortical evoked responses to light flash. Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry, 7, 23–36.Google Scholar
  31. Chapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Ross, W., et al. (1963). Altered electrical activity of human hippocampus and amygdala induced by LSD-25. Physiologist, 5, 118.Google Scholar
  32. Chapman, W. P. (1960). Depth electrode studies in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In E. R. Ramey D. S. O’Doherty (Eds.), Electrical studies on the unanesthetized brain (pp. 334–350 ). New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  33. Chapman, W. P., Schroeder, H. R., Geyer, G., Brazier, M. A. B., Fager, C., Poppen, T. L., Soloman, H. C., Yakovlev, P. I. (1954). Physiological evidence concerning importance of the amygdaloid nuclear region in the integration of circulatory functioning and emotion and man. Science, 177, 949–951.Google Scholar
  34. Chen, R., Forster, F. M. (1973). Cursive and gelastic epilepsy. Neurology (New York), 23, 1019–1029.Google Scholar
  35. Clark, C. V. H., Isaacson, R. L. (1965). Effects of bilateral hippocampal ablation on DRL performance. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 59, 137–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Como, P., Joseph, R., Fiducis, D., Siegel, J. (1979). Visually evoked potentials and after-discharge as a function of arousal and frontal lesion in rats. Proceedings of the Society for Neuroscience, 5, 542.Google Scholar
  37. Corking, S. (1965). Tactually-guided maze learning in man: Effects of unilateral cortical excisions and bilateral hippocampal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 3, 339–351.Google Scholar
  38. Critchley, M. (1939). Neurogical aspects of visual and auditory hallucinations. British Medical Journal, 107, 634–639.Google Scholar
  39. Crosby, E. C., DeJonge, B. D., Schneider, R. C. (1966). Evidence for some of the trends in the phylogenetic development of the vertebrate telencephalon. In R. Hassler H. Stephan (Eds.), Evolution of the Forebrain (pp. 333–371 ). Stuttgart: G. T. Verlag.Google Scholar
  40. Currier, R. D., Little, S. C., Suess, J. F., Andy, O. J. (1971). Sexual seizures. Archives of Neurology, 25, 260–264.Google Scholar
  41. Cushing, H. (1932). Papers relating to the pituitary body, hypothalamus and parasympathetic nervous system. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  42. Daly, D., Moulder, D. (1957). Gelastic epilepsy. Neurology (New York), 7, 26–36.Google Scholar
  43. Davison, C., Kelman, H. (1939). Pathological laughing and crying. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 42, 595–643.Google Scholar
  44. Delgado, J. (1955). Cerebral structures involved in transmission and elaboration of noxious stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 18, 261–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Delgado, J., Anand, B. K. (1953). Increase of food intake induced by electrical stimulation of the laterial hypothalamus. American Journal of Physiology, 172, 162–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dennis, W. (1960). Causes of retardation among institutional children. Iran. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 96, 47–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Diamond, M. C. (1985). Rat forebrain morphology: Right-left; male-female; young-old; enriched-improvished. In S. D. Glick (Ed.), Cerebral lateralization in nonhuman primates (pp. 181–201 ). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  48. Dicks, D., Myers, R. E., Kling, A. (1969). Uncus and amygdaloid lesions on social behavior in free ranging rhesus monkey. Science, 160, 69–71.Google Scholar
  49. Dott, N. M. (1938). Surgical aspects of the hypothalamus. In W. E. LeGross Clark (Ed.), The hypothalamus (pp. 77–103 ). Edinburgh: Oliver Boyd.Google Scholar
  50. Douglas, R. J. (1967). The hippocampus and behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 416–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dorner, G. (1976). Hormones and brain differentiation Amsterdam: Elsevier/North- Holland.Google Scholar
  52. Dreifuss, J. J., Murphy, J. T., Gloor, P. (1968). Contrasting effects of two identified amygdaloid efferent pathways on single hypothalamic neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 31, 237–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Drefus-Brisac, C. (1970). Sleep ontogenesis in human prematures after 32 weeks of age. Developmental Psychobiology, 3, 91–121.Google Scholar
  54. Dreyfus-Brisac, C., Monod, N. (1975). The electroencephalogram of full-term newborns and premature infants. In C. Drefus-Brisac (Ed.), Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology (Vol. 6b ) (pp. 240–260 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  55. Egger, M. D., Flynn, J. P. (1963). Effect of electrical stimulation of the amygdala on hypothalamically elicited attach behavior. Journal of Neurophysiology, 26, 705–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ellen, P., Wilson, A. S., Powell, E. W. (1964). Septal inhibition and timing behavior in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 10, 120–132.Google Scholar
  57. Emde, R N, Koenig, K. L. (1969). Neonatal smiling and rapid eye movement states. American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 8, 57–67.Google Scholar
  58. Emde, R. N., Metcalf, D. R. (1970), An electroencephalographic study of behavior and rapid eye movement states in the human newborn. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 150, 376–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Endroczi, E., Schreiberg, G., Lissak, K. (1963). The role of central nervous activating and inhibitory structures in the control of pituitary-adrenocortical function. Acta Physiologica, 24, 211–221.Google Scholar
  60. Erickson, T. (1945). Erotomanis (nymphomania) as an expression of cortical epileptiform discharge. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 53, 226–231.Google Scholar
  61. Fedio, P., Van Buren, J. (1974). Memory deficits during electrical stimulation of the speech cortex in conscious man. Brain and Language, 1, 29–42.Google Scholar
  62. Feldman, S. (1962). Neurophysiological mechanisms modifying afferent hypothalamic-hippocampal condition. Experimental Neurology, 5, 269–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Feldman, S., Saphier, D., Conforti, N. (1987). Hypothalamic afferent connections mediating adrenocortical responses that follow hippocampal stimulation. Experimental Neurology, 98, 103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Flor-Henry, P. (1969). Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy: a controlled investigation. Epilepsia, 10, 363–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Flor-Henry, P. (1983). Cerebral basis of psychopathology. Boston: John Wright.Google Scholar
  66. Flynn, J. P., Edwards, S. B., Bandler, R. J. (1971). Changes in sensory and motor systems during critically elicited attack. Behavioral Science, 16, 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Foerster, O. O., Gagel, O. (1932). Die Vorderseitenstrangdurschschneidun biem Menschen (English summary). Z. Neurology and Psychiatry, 138, 1–92.Google Scholar
  68. Foreman, N., Stevens, R. (1987). Relationships between the superior colliculus and hippocampus: Neural and behavioral considerations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 101–152.Google Scholar
  69. Freemon, F. R., Nevis, A. H. (1969). Temporal lobe sexual seizures. Neurology, (New York), 19, 87–90.Google Scholar
  70. Freeman, W., Williams, J (1952). Human sonar. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 32, 456–462.Google Scholar
  71. Freeman, W., Williams, J. (1963). Hallucinations in Braille. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 70, 630–634.Google Scholar
  72. Freud, S. (1911). Formulations regarding the two principals in mental functioning. A general selection from the works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  73. Fukuda, M., Ono, T., Nakamura, K. (1987). Functional relation among inferotemporal cortex, amygdala and lateral hypothalamus in monkey operant feeding behavior. Journal of Neurophysiology, 57, 1060–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Fuller, J. L., Rosvold, H. E., Pribram, K. H. (1957). Effect on affective and cognitive behavior in the dog of lesions of the pyriform-amygdaloid-hippocampal complex. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 50, 89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fulton, J. F., Ingraham, F. D. (1929). Emotional disturbances following experimental lesions of the base of the brain. Journal of Physiology, 67, 47–90.Google Scholar
  76. Gerendai, I. (1984) Lateralization of neuroendocrine control. In N. Geschwind A. M. Galaburda (Eds.), Cerebral dominance (pp. 137–150 ). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Gibbs, A. F. (1951). Ictal and non-ictal psychiatric disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 113, 522–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gloor, P. (1955). Electrophysiological studies on the connections of the amygdaloid nucleus of the cat. I II. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 7, 223–242, 243–262.Google Scholar
  79. Gloor, P. (1960). Amygdala. In J. Field (Ed.), Handbook of physiology (pp. 300–370 ). Washington, DC: American Physiological Society.Google Scholar
  80. Gloor, P., Olivier, A. Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experimental phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of Neurology, 12, 129–144.Google Scholar
  81. Goldstein, L., Stolzfus, N., Gardocki, J. (1959). Changes in interhemispheric amplitude relationships in the EEG during sleep. Physiology and Behavior, 59, 811–815.Google Scholar
  82. Gorski, R. A., Gordon, J. H., Shryne, J. E., Southam, A. M. (1978). Evidence for a morphological sex difference within the medial preoptic area of the rat brain. Brain Research, 148, 333–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Graeber, R. C. (1980). Telencephalic function in elasmobranchs. A behavioral perspective. In S. O. E. Ebbesson (Ed.), Comparative neurology of the telencephalon (pp. 301–327 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  84. Grastyan, E., Lissak, K., Madarasz, I., Donhoffer, H. (1959). Hippocampal electrical activity during the development of conditioned reflexes. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 11, 409–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gray, J. A. (1970). Sodium amobarbital, the hippocampal theta rhythm and the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Psychological Review, 77, 465–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Green, J. D., Adey, W. R. (1956). Electrophysiological studies of hippocampal connections and excitability. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 8, 245–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Green, J. E., Arduini, A. (1954). Hippocampal electrical activity in arousal. Journal of Neurophysiology, 17, 533–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Greenough, W. (1976). Enduring effects of differential experience and training. In M. R. Rosenzweig E. L. Bennett (Eds.), Neural mechanisms of learning and memory (pp. 170–240 ).Google Scholar
  89. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Guillery, R. W. (1957). Degeneration in the hypothalamic connexions of the albinorat. Journal of Anatomy, 91, 403–419.Google Scholar
  90. Gunne, L. M., Lewander, T. (1966). Monoamine in brain and adrenal glands of cats after electrically induced defense reactions. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 67, 405–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hagino, N., Yamoaka, S. (1976). A neuroendocrinological approach to the investigation of the septum. In J. F. DeFrance (Ed.), The septal nuclei. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  92. Harlow, H. F. (1962). The heterosexual affectional system in monkeys. American Psychologist, 17, 1–9.Google Scholar
  93. Harlow, H. F. (1965). Sexual behavior in the rhesus monkey. In F. Beach (Ed.), Sex and behavior (pp. 220–235 ). New York: John Wiley Sons.Google Scholar
  94. Halgren, E., Babb, T. L., Crandall, P. H. (1978). Activity of human hippocampal formation and amygdale neurons during memory tests. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 45, 585–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Heath, R. G. (1954). Studies in schizophrenia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Heath, R. G. (1972). Physiological basis of emotional expression. Biological Psychiatry, 5, 172–184.Google Scholar
  97. Heath, R. G. (1976). Brain function in epilepsy: Midbrain, medullary and cerebellar interaction with the rostral forebrain. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 39, 1037–1051.Google Scholar
  98. Health, R. G., Monroe, R., Mickle, W. (1955). Stimulation of the amygdaloid nucleus in schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 862–863.Google Scholar
  99. Hermann, B. P., Chambria, S. (1980). Interictal psychopathology in patients with ictal fear. Archives of Neurology, 37, 667–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Herrick, C. J. (1925). The amphibian forebrain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 39, 400–489.Google Scholar
  101. Herzog, A. G., Van Hoesen, G. W. (1976). Temporal neocortical afferent connections to the amygdala in thesus monkey. Brain Research, 115, 57–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hillbom, E. (1960). After-effects of brain injuries. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (Suppl.), 142, 1–180.Google Scholar
  103. Hodoba, D. (1986). Paradoxic sleep facilitation by interictal epileptic activity of right temporal origin. Biological Psychiatry, 21, 1267–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Horel, J. A. (1978). The neuroanatomy of amnesia. Brain, 101, 403–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Horowitz, M. J., Adams, J. E., Rutkin, B. B. (1968). Visual imagery on brain stimulation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 19, 469–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Humphrey, M. E., Zangwill, O. L. (1951). Cessation of dreaming after brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 14, 322–240.Google Scholar
  107. Humphrey, T. (1972). The development of the human amygdaloid complex. In B. E. Elefterhiou (Ed.) The neurobiology of the amygdala. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  108. Ingram, W. R. (1952). Brainstem mechanisms and behavior. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 4, 395–406.Google Scholar
  109. Ironside, R. (1956). Disorders of laughter due to brain lesions. Brain, 79, 589–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Isaacson, R. L. (1982). The limbic system. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  111. Isaacson, R. L., Douglas, R. J., Moore, R. Y. (1961). The effect of radical hippocampal ablation on acquisition of avoidance responses. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54, 625–628.Google Scholar
  112. Jonason, K. R., Enloe, L. J. (1972). Alterations in social behavior following septal and amygdaloid lesions in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 75, 280–301.Google Scholar
  113. Jonason, K. R., Enloe, L. J., Contrucci, J., Meyer, P. M. (1973). Effects of stimulation and successive septal and amygdaloid lesions on social behavior in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 83, 54–61.Google Scholar
  114. Joseph, R. (1982). The neuropsychology of development: Hemispheric laterality, limbic language and the origin of thought. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 4–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Joseph, R. (1986a). Confabulation and delusional denial: Frontal lobe and lateralized influences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 507–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Joseph, R. (1986b). Reversal of cerebral dominance for language and emotion in a corpus callosotomy patient. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 49, 628–634.Google Scholar
  117. Joseph, R. (1988a). The right cerebral hemisphere: Neuropsychiatry, neuropsychology, neurodynamics. Journal of Clinical Psychology Google Scholar
  118. Joseph, R. (1988b). Dual mental functioning in a split-brain patient. Journal of Clinical Psychology Google Scholar
  119. Joseph, R., Casagrande, V. A. (1980). Visual field defects and recovery following lid closure in a prosimian primate. Behavioral Brain Research 1, 150–178.Google Scholar
  120. Joseph, R., Forrest, N., Fiducis, D., Como, P., Siegel, J. (1981). Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of arousal. Physiological Psychology, 9, 90–95.Google Scholar
  121. Joseph, R., Gallagher, R. E. (1980). Gender and early environment influences on activity, arousal, over-responsiveness, and exploration. Developmental Psycobiology, 13, 527–544.Google Scholar
  122. Joseph, R., Gallagher, R. E., Holloway, W., Kahn, J. (1984). Two brains, one child: interhemispheric information transfer deficits and confabulatory responding in children ages 4, 7, 10. Cortex, 20, 317–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Joseph, R., Hess, S., Birecree, E. (1978). Effects of sex hormone manipulations and exploration on sex differences in learning. Behavioral Biology, 24, 364–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Jouvent, M. (1967). Neurophysiology of the states of sleep. Physiological Review, 47, 117–177.Google Scholar
  125. Joynt, R. J. (1966). Verney’s concept of the osmoreceptor. Archives of Neurology, 14, 331–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kaada, B. R. (1951). Somato-motor, autonomic and electrocortical responses to electrical stimulation of “rhinencephalon” and other structures in primates, cat, and dog. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, (Suppl.), 24, 1–170.Google Scholar
  127. Kaada, B. R., Andersen, P., Jensen, J. (1954). Stimulation of the amygdaloid nuclear complex in un-anesthetized cats. Neurology (New York), 4, 48–64.Google Scholar
  128. Kaada, B. R., Jansen, J., Andersen, P. (1953). Stimulation of hippocampus and medial cortical areas in unanesthetized cats. Neurology (New York), 3, 844–857.Google Scholar
  129. Karli, P., Vergnes, M. (1969). Interspecific aggressive behavior and its manipulation by brain ablation and stimulation. In S. Garattini E. B. Sigg (Eds.), Aggressive behavior (pp. 270–302 ). Amsterdam: Excepta Medica.Google Scholar
  130. Kennard, M. A. (1945). Focal autonomic representation in the cortex and its relation to sham rage. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 4, 295–304.Google Scholar
  131. Kerr, N. H., Foulkes, D. (1978). Reported absence of visual dream imagery in a normally sighted subject with Turners syndrome. Journal of Mental Imagery, 2, 247–264.Google Scholar
  132. Kerr, N. H., Foulkes, D. (1978). Reported absence of visual dream imagery in a normally sighted subject with Turner’s syndrome. Journal of Mental Imagery, 2, 247–264.Google Scholar
  133. Kesner, R. B., Andrus, R. G. (1982). Amygdala stimulation disrupts the magnitude of reinforcement contribution to long-term memory. Physiological Psychology, 10, 55–59.Google Scholar
  134. Kimura, D. (1963). Effects of selective hippocampal damage on avoidance behavior in the rat. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 12, 213–218.Google Scholar
  135. Kimura, D. (1963). Right temporal lobe damage: Perception of unfamiliar stimuli after damage. Archives of Neurology, 8, 264–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. King, F. A. (1958). Effects of septal and amygdaloid lesions on emotional behavior and conditioned avoidance responses in the rat. Science, 128, 655–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kling, A. (1972). Effects of amygdalectomy on social-affective behavior in non-human primates. In B. E. Eleftheriou (Ed.), The neurobiology of the amygdala (pp. 127–170 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  138. Kling, A. S., Lloyd, R. L., Perryman, K. M. (1987). Slow wave changes in amygdala to visual, auditory and social stimuli following lesions of the inferior temporal cortex in squirrel monkey. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 47, 54–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Klinger, J., Gloor, P. (1960). The connections of the amygdala and of the anterior temporal cortex in the human brain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 115, 333–352.Google Scholar
  140. Kluver, H., Bucy, P. C. (1939). Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 42, 979–1000.Google Scholar
  141. Kolb, B., Whishaw, W. (1977). IQ effects of brain lesions and atropine on hippocampal and neocortical EEG in the rat. Experimental Neurology, 56, 1–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Krettek, J. E., Price, J. L. (1977a). Projections from the amygdaloid complex and adjacent olfactory structures to the entorhinal cortex and to the subiculum in rat and cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 172, 723–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Krettek, J. E., Price, J. L. (1977b). Projections from the amygdaloid complex to the cerebral cortex and thalamus in the rat and cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 172, 687–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kripke, D. F., Sonnenschein, (1973). A 90-minute daydream cycle. Sleep Research, 2, 187–190.Google Scholar
  145. Langmeier, J., Matejcek, Z. (1975). Psychological deprivation in childhood. New York: John Wiley Sons.Google Scholar
  146. Lilly, J. C. (1960). Learning motivated by subcortical stimulation. In E. Ramsey E. O’Doherty (Eds.), Electrical studies on the unanesthetized brain (pp. 67–103 ). New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  147. Lishman, W. A. (1968). Brain damage in relation to psychiatric disability after head injury. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 373–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lisk, W. G. (1967). Neural localization for androgen activation of copulatory behavior in the male rat. Endocrinology, 80, 754–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lisk, W. G. (1971). Diencephalic placement of estradiol and sexual receptivity in the female rat. American Journal of Physiology, 203, 493–500.Google Scholar
  150. List, C. F., Dowman, C. E., Bagheiv, R. (1958). Posterior hypothalamic hermatomas and gangliomas causing precious puberty. Neurology (New York), 8, 164–174.Google Scholar
  151. Loiseau, P., Cohandon, F., Cohandon, S. (1971). Gelastic epilepsy. A review and report of five cases. Epilepsia, 12, 313–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Machne, X., Segundo, J. (1956). Unitary responses to afferent volleys in amygdaloid complex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 19, 232–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Maclean, P. D. (1949). Psychosomatic disease and the “visceral brain.” Recent developments bearing on the Papex theory of emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 11, 338–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Maclean, P. D. (1952). Some psychiatric implications of physiological studies of fronto-temporal portion of limbic system (visceral brain). Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 4, 407–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Maclean, P. D. (1969). The hypothalamus and emotional behavior. In W. Haymaker (Ed.), The hypothalamus (pp. 127–167 ). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  156. Maclean, P. D. (1973). New findings of brain function and sociosexual behavior. In J. Zubin J. Money (Eds.), Contemporary sexual behavior (pp. 90–117 ). Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  157. Mahl, G. F., Rothenberg, A., Delgado, J. M. R., Hamlin, H. (1964). Psychological response in the human to intracerebral electrical stimulation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 26, 337–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Mark, V. H., Ervin, F. R., Sweet, W. H. (1972). Deep temporal lobe stimulation in man. In B. E. Eleftheriou (Ed.), The neurobiology of the amygdala (pp. 207–240 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  159. Marshall, J. F., Teitelbaum, P. (1974). Further analysis of sensory inattention following lateral hypothalamic damage in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 86, 375–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Martin, J. P. (1950). Fits of laughter (sham mirth) in organic cerebral disease. Brain 73, 453–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McClary, R. A. Response specificity in the behavioral effect of limbic system lesions in the cat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54, 605–613.Google Scholar
  162. McClary, R. A. (1966). Response-modulating functions of the limbic system. In E. Stellar J. M. Sprague (Eds.), Progress in physiological psychology, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  163. McGraw, M. B. (1969). The neuromuscular maturation of the human infant. New York: Hafner.Google Scholar
  164. Mehler, W. R. (1980). Subcortical afferent connections of the amygdala in the monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 190, 733–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Mesulam, M.-M., Mufson, E. J. (1982). Insula of the old world monkey. III. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 212, 38–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Mesulam, M.-M., Mufson, E. J., Levey, A. I., Wainer, B. H. (1983). Cholinergic innervation of the cortex by the basal forebrain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 214, 170–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Meyer, D. R., Ruth, R. A., Lavond, D. G. (1978). The septal social cohesiveness effect. Physiology Behavior, 21, 1027–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Meyer, J. S., Ishikawa, Y., Hata, T., Karacan, I. (1987). Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming. Brain and Cognition, 6, 266–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Michael, R. P., Kaverne, E. B. (1974). Pheramones in the communication of sexual status in primates. In W. Ver der Kloot, C. Walcott, B. Dane (Eds.), Readings in behavior (pp. 202–247 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston.Google Scholar
  170. Milner, B. (1966). Amnesia following operations on the temporal lobes. In C. W. M. Whitt and O. L. Zangwill (Eds.), Amnesia (pp. 75–89 ). London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  171. Milner, B. (1970). Memory and the medial temporal regions of the brain. In K. Pribram and D. E. Broadbent (Eds.), Biology of memory (pp. 37–52 ). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  172. Milner, B. (1971). Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. British Medical Bulletin, 71, 272–275.Google Scholar
  173. Milner, E. (1967). Human neural and behavioral development. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  174. Mishkin, M. (1978). Memory in monkeys severely impaired by combined but not be separate removal of amygdala and hippocampus. Nature (London), 273, 297–299.Google Scholar
  175. Mogenson, G. (1976). Septal-hypothalamic relationships. In J. F. DeFrance (Ed.), The septal nuclei. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  176. Money, J., Hosta G. (1967). Laughing seizures and sexual precocity. John Hopkins Medical Journal, 120, 326–330.Google Scholar
  177. Murri, L., Arena, R., Siciliano, G., Mazzotta, R., Muratorio, A. (1984). Dream recall in patients with focal cerebral lesions. Archives of Neurology, 41, 183–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Nakamura, K., Ono, T. (1986). Lateral hypothalamus neuron involvement in integration of natural and artificial rewards and cue signals. Journal of Neurophysiology, 55, 163–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Nauta, W. J. H. (1956). An experimental study of the fomix in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 104, 247–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Nauta, W. J. H. (1958). Hippocampal projections and related neural pathways to the midbrain in cat. Brain, 81, 319–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Nauta, W. J. H. (1964). Some efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey. In J. M. Warren K. Akert (Eds.), The frontal granular cortex and behavior (pp. 397–407 ). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  182. Nauta, W. J. H. (1971). The problem of the frontal lobe: A reinterpretation. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 8, 167–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Offen, M. L., Davidoff, R. A., Troost, B. T., Richey, E. T. (1976). Dacrystic epilepsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 39, 829–834.Google Scholar
  184. O’Keefe, J., Bouma, H. (1969). Complex sensory properties of certain amygdala units in the freely moving cat. Experimental Neurology, 23, 384–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Olds, J. A. (1956). A preliminary mapping of electrical reinforcing effects in rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49, 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Olds, J., Milner, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal areas and other regions of the rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Olds, M. E., Forbes, J. L. (1981). The central basis of motivation: Intracranial self-stimulation studies. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 523–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Olmstead, C. E., Best, P. J., Mays, L. W. (1973). Neural activity in the dorsal hippocampus during paradoxical sleep, slow wave sleep and waking. Brain Research, 60, 381–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Olton, D. S., Branch, M., Best, P. J. (1978). Spatial correlates of hippocampal unit activity. Experimental Neurology, 58, 397–409.Google Scholar
  190. Ono, T., Nishino, H. Sasaki, K., Fukuda, M., Muramoto, K. (1980). Role of the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala in feeding behavior. Brain Research Bulletin, 5, 143–149.Google Scholar
  191. Oppler, W. (1950). Manic psychosis in a case of parasagittal meningioma. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 47, 417–430.Google Scholar
  192. Pandya, D. N., Van Hoesen, G. W., Domeskick, V. B. (1973). A cinguloamygdaloid projection in the rhesus monkey. Brain Research, 61, 369–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Parmelee, A. H., Wenner, W. H., Akiyama, Y., Schultz, M. A., Stern, E. (1967). Sleep states in premature infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 14, 70–77.Google Scholar
  194. Penfield, W. (1954). The permanent records of the stream of consciousness. Acta Psychologica, 11, 47–69.Google Scholar
  195. Penfield, W., Milner, B. (1958). Memory deficit produced by bilateral lesions in the hippocampal zone. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 79, 475–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Penfield, W., Perot, A. (1963). The brain’s record of auditory and visual experience. A final summary and discussion. Brain 86, 595–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Penfield, W., Rasmussen, T. (1950). The cerebral cortex of man. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  198. Perryman, K. M., Kling, A. S., Lloyd, R. L. (1987). Differential effects of inferior temporal cortex lesions upon visual and auditory-evoked potentials in the amygdala of the squirrel monkey. Behavioral and Neural biology, 47, 73–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Petsche, H., Gogolack, G., Van Zwieten, P. A. (1965). Rhythmicity of septal cell discharges at various levels of reticular excitation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 19, 25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Petsche, H., Stumpf, C. H. Gogolack, G. (1962). The significance of the rabbit’s septum as a relay station between midbrain and hippocampus. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 14, 202–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence. New York: International University Press.Google Scholar
  202. Pilleri, G., Poeck, K. (1965). Sham rage-like behavior in a case of traumatic decerebration. Confina Neurologica, 25, 156–166.Google Scholar
  203. Poletti, C. E., Sujatanond, M. (1980). Evidence for a second hippocampal efferent pathway to hypothalamus and basal forebrain comparable to fomix system: A unit study in the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 44, 514–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Poplawsky, A., Isaacson, R. L. (1987). The GM1 ganglioside hastens the reduction of hyperemotionality after septal lesions. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 48, 150–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Rainbow, T. C., Parsons, B., McEwen, B. A. (1982). Sex differences in rat brain oestrogen and progestin receptors. Nature (London), 300, 648–649.Google Scholar
  206. Raisman, G., Field, P. M. (1971). Sexual dimorphism in the preoptic area of the rat. Science, 173, 731–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Raisman, G., Field, P. M. (1973). Sexual dimorphism in the neuropil of the preoptic area of the rat and its dependence on neonatal androgen. Brain Research, 54, 1–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Ranson, S. W., Kabat, H., Magoun, H. W. (1935). Autonomic responses to electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus, preoptic region and septum, Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 33, 467–477.Google Scholar
  209. Rausch, R., Serafetinides, E. A., Crandall, P. H. (1977). Olfactory memory in patients with anterior temporal lobectomy. Cortex, 13, 445–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Rawlins, J. N. P. (1985). Associations across time: The hippocampus as a temporary memory store. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 479–496.Google Scholar
  211. Redding, F. K. (1967). Modification of sensory cortical evoked potentials by hippocampal stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 22, 74–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Remillard, G. M., et al. (1983). Sexual ictal manifestations predominant in women with temporal lobe epilepsy: A finding suggesting sexual dimorphism in the human brain Neurology New York), 33, 323–330.Google Scholar
  213. Robinson, B. W. (1967). Vocalizations evoked from forebrain in Macaca mulatta. Physiology and Behavior, 2, 345–352.Google Scholar
  214. Robinson, B. W., Mishkin, M. (1968). Alimentary responses evoked from forebrain structures in Macaca mulatta. Science, 136, 260–261.Google Scholar
  215. Rolls, E. T. (1975). The brain and reward. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  216. Rolls, E. T., Burton, M. J., Mora, F. (1976). Hypothalamic neuronal response associated with the sight of food. Brain Research, 111, 53–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Rosenzweig, M. R. (1971). Effects of environment on development of brain and behavior. In E. Tolbach, L. R. Aronson, E. Shaw (Eds.), The biopsychology of development (pp. 307–367 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  218. Routtenberg, A. (1968). The two arousal hypothesis: Reticular formation and limbic system. Psychological Review, 75, 51–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. F., Pribram, K. H. (1954). Influences of amygdalectomy on social behavior in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 173–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Rubenstein, E. H., Delgado, J. M. R. (1963). Inhibition induced by forebrain stimulation in monkey. American Journal of Physiology, 205, 941–948.Google Scholar
  221. Ruff, R. L. (1980). Orgasmic epilepsy. Neurology (New York), 30, 1252–1253.Google Scholar
  222. Russchen, F. T. (1982). Amygdalopetal projection in the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 207, 157–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Sarter, M., Markowitsch, J. J. (1985). The amygdala’s role in human mnemonic processing. Cortex, 21, 724.Google Scholar
  224. Savage, G. E. (1980). The fish telencephalon and its relation to learning. In S. O. E. Ebbesson (Ed.), Comparative neurology of the telencephalon (pp. 160–188 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  225. Sawa, M., Delgado, J. M. R. (1963). Amygdala unitary activity in the unrestrained cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 15, 637–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Schaffer, H. R. (1966). The onset of fear of strangers and the incongruity hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 95–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schaffer, H. R., Emerson, P. E. (1964). The development of social attachment in infancy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 29, (Whole No. 94).Google Scholar
  228. Schiff, H. B., Sabin, T. D., Geller, A. Alexander, L., Mark, V. (1982). Lithium in aggressive behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1346–1348.Google Scholar
  229. Schreiner, L., Kling, A. (1953). Behavioral changes following rhinencephalic injury in cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 16, 643–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Schreiner, L., Kling, A. (1956). Rhinencephalon and behavior. American Journal of Physiology, 184, 486490.Google Scholar
  231. Schutze, I., Knuepfer, M. M., Eismann, A., Stumpf, H., Stock, G. (1987). Sensory input to single neurons in the amygdala of the cat. Experimental Neurology, 97, 499–515.Google Scholar
  232. Scoville, W. B., Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 20, 11,-21.Google Scholar
  233. Serafetinides, E. A. (1965). The significance of the temporal lobes and of hemisphere dominance in the production of the LSD-25 symptomology in man. Neuropsychologia, 3, 69–79.Google Scholar
  234. Sethi, P. K., Rao, S. T. (1976). Gelastic, quiritarian, and cursive epilepsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 39, 823–828.Google Scholar
  235. Shealy, C., Peele, J. (1957). Studies on amygdaloid nucleus of cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 20, 125–139.Google Scholar
  236. Sherwin, I. (1981). Psychosis associated with epilepsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 44, 83–85.Google Scholar
  237. Siegel, A., Edinger, H. (1976). Organization of the hippocampal-septal axis. In J. F. DeFrance (Ed.), The septal nuclei ( 74–114 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  238. Spencer, S. S., Spencer, D. D., Williamson, P. D., Mattson, R. H. (1983). Sexual automatisms in complex partial seizures. Neurology (New York), 33, 527–533.Google Scholar
  239. Spinelli, D. N. (1970). OCCAM: A computer model for a content of addressable memory in the central nervous system. In K. H. Pribram D. E. Broadbent (Eds.), Biology of memory (pp. 33–60 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  240. Spitz, R. A. (1945). Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytical Study of the Child, 1, 53–74.Google Scholar
  241. Spitz, R. A., Wolf, K. M. (1946). The smiling response: A contribution to the ontogenesis of social relations. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 34, 57–125.Google Scholar
  242. Squire, L. R., Moore, R. Y. (1979). Dorsal thalamic lesion in a noted case of human memory dysfunction. Annals of Neurology, 6, 503–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Sroufe, L. A., Waters, E., Matas, L. (1974). Contextual determinants in infant affective response. In M. Lewis and L. Roseblum, (Eds.), The origins of fear (pp. 301–350 ). New York: John Wiley Sons.Google Scholar
  244. Stein, L., Ray, O. S. (1959). Self-regulation of brain stimulating current intensity in the rat, Science, 130, 570–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Steklis, H. D., Kling, A. (1985). Neurobiology of affiliative behavior in nonhuman primates. In M. Reite T. Field (Eds.), The psychobiology of attachment and separation (pp. 93–134 ). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  246. Steriade, M. (1964). Development of evoked responses into self-sustained activity within amygdalo-hippocampal circuits. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 16, 221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Steward, O. (1976). Topographic organization of the projections from the entorhinal area to the hippocampal formation of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 167, 285–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Stem, K., Dacey, T. (1942). Glioma of the diencephalon in a manic patient. American Journal of Psychiatry, 98, 716.Google Scholar
  249. Strauss, E., Risser, A., Jones, M. W. (1982). Fear responses in patients with epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 39, 626–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Swanson, L. W., Cowan, W. M. (1979). The connections of the septal region in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 186, 621–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Sweet, W. H., Ervin, F., Mark, V. H. (1969). The relationship of violent behavior in focal cerebral disease. In S. Garattini E. Sigg (Eds.), Aggressive behavior. New York: John Wiley Sons.Google Scholar
  252. Tanabe, T., Yarita, H., Lino, M., Ooshima, Y., Takagi, S. F. (1975). An olfactory projection area in orbitofrontal cortex of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 38, 1269–1283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Tarachow, S. (1941). The clinical value of hallucinations in localizing brain tumors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 99, 1434–1443.Google Scholar
  254. Taylor, D. C. (1975). Factors influencing the occurrence of schizophrenia like psychosis in patients with tempral lobe epilepsy. Psychological Medicine, 5, 249–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Teitelbaum, P. (1961). Disturbances in feeding and drinking behavior after hypothalamic lesions. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 70–92 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  256. Teitelbaum, P., Epstein, A. N. (1962). The lateral hypothalamic syndrome. Psychological Review, 69, 74–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Terzian, H., Ore, G. D. (1955). Syndrome of Kluver and Bucy in man by bilateral removal of temporal lobes. Neurology (New York), 5, 373–380.Google Scholar
  258. Turner, B. H., Mishkin, M., Knapp, M. (1980). Organization of the amygdalopetal projections from modality-specific cortical association areas in the monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 191, 515–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Uhl, R. G., Kuhar, M. J., Snyder, S. H. (1978). Enkephalin containing pathways: Amygdaloid efferents in the stria terminalis. Brain Research, 149, 223–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Ursin, H., Kaada, B. R. (1960). Functional localization within the amygdaloid complex in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 12, 1–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Van Hoesen, G. W., Pandya, D. N., Butters, N. (1972). Cortical afferents to the entorhinal cortex of the rhesus monkey. Science, 175, 1471–1473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Victor, M., Adams, R. D., Collins, G. H. (1971). The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  263. Van Hoesen, G. W. (1981). The differential distribution, diversity and sprouting of cortical projections to the amygdala in the rhesus monkey. In Y. Ben-Ari (Ed.), The amygdala complex (pp. 77–90 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  264. Vochteloo, J. D., Koolhaas, J. M. (1987). Medial amygdala lesions in male rats reduce aggressive behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 41, 99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Vonderache, A. R. (1940). Changes in the hypothalamus on organic disease. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 20, 689–712.Google Scholar
  266. Waraczynski, M., Stellar, J. R. (1978). Reward saturation in medial forebrain bundle self-stimulation. Physiology and Behavior, 41, 585–593.Google Scholar
  267. Waters, E., Matas, L., Stroufe, L. A. (1975). Infant’s reactions to an approaching stranger: description, validation and functional significance of wariness. Child Development, 46, 348–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Wasman, M., Flynn, J. P. (1962). Directed attack elicited from the hypothalamus. Archives of Neurology, 6, 220–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Wechsler, A. F. (1973). The effect of organic brain disease on recall of emotionally charged vs. neutral narrative texts. Neurology (New York), 23, 130–135.Google Scholar
  270. Weil, A. A. (1956). Ictal depression and anxiety in temporal lobe disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 149–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. Acta Neurochirurgica, 24, 199–216.Google Scholar
  272. Weiskrantz, L. (1956). Behavioral changes associated with ablation of the amygdaloid complex in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49, 381–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Wheatley, M. D. (1944). The hypothalamus and affective behavior. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 52, 296–316.Google Scholar
  274. Williams, D. (1956). The structure of emotions reflected in epileptic experiences. Brain, 79, 29–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Wilson, E. O. (1962). Chemical systems. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Animal communication (pp. 87–117 ).Google Scholar
  276. Zybrozyna, A. W. (1963). The anatomical basis of patterns of autonomic and behavior responses effected via the amygdala. In W. Bargmann J. P. Schade (Eds.), Progress in brain research (Vol. 13 ) (pp. 220–253 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhawn Joseph
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurobehavioral CenterSanta ClaraUSA

Personalised recommendations