The Left Cerebral Hemisphere

Aphasia, Alexia, Agraphia, Agnosia,Apraxia, Language, and Thought
  • Rhawn Joseph
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)


It is now well known that among more than 80% of the right-handed population and among 50% of those who are left-handed, the left cerebral hemisphere provides the neural foundation for the verbal perception, comprehension, differentiation, identification, and linguistic labeling of visual, auditory, and somesthetic information. The left hemisphere dominates in the perception and processing of real words, word lists, rhymes, numbers, backwards speech, Morse code, consonants, consonant vowel syllables, nonsense sylla­bles, the transitional elements of speech, and single phonemes (Blumstein & Cooper, 1974; Cutting, 1974; Kimura, 1961; Kimura & Folb, 1968; Levy, 1974, Mills & Roll-man, 1979; Papcun, Krashen, Terbeek, et al., 1974; Shankweiler & Studdert-Kennedy, 1966, 1967; Studdert-Kennedy & Shankweiler, 1970). It is also dominant for recognizing phonetic, conceptual, and verbal (but not physical) similarities, e.g., determining whether two letters (g and p versus g and q) have the same vowel ending (Levy, 1974; Moscovitch, 1973).


Left Hemisphere Inferior Parietal Lobule Angular Gyrus Arcuate Fasciculus Left Inferior Parietal Lobule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrams, R., and Taylor, M. A. (1980). Psychopathology and the electroencephalogram. Biological Psychiatry, 15, 871–878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ach, N. (1951). Determining tendencies. In D. Rapaport (Ed.), Organization and pathology of thought (pp. 3753 ). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Albert, M. L., and Bear, D. (1974). Time to understand. A case study of word deafness with reference to the role of time in auditory comprehension. Brain, 97, 383–394.Google Scholar
  4. Albert, M. L., Sparks, R., von Strockert, T., and Sax, D. (1972). A case of auditory agnosia Linguistic and nonlinguistic processing. Cortex, 8, 427–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barron, R. W. (1980). Visual and phonological strategies in reading and spelling. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive processes in spelling (pp. 201–230 ). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Basso, A., Taborelli, A., and Vignolo, A. (1978). Dissociated disorders of speaking and writing in aphasia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 41, 556–563.Google Scholar
  7. Beaumont, J. G. (1974). Handedness and hemisphere function. In S. J. Dimond and J. G. Beaumont (Eds.), Hemispheric function in the human brain (pp. 89–120 ). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  8. Benson, D. F. (1977). The third alexia. Archives of Neurology, 34, 327–331.Google Scholar
  9. Benson, D. F. (1979). Aphasia, alexia, agraphia. New York: Churchill-Livingstone.Google Scholar
  10. Benson, D. F., and Geschwind, N. (1969). The alexias. In P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology, (Vol. 4 ) (pp. 427–473 ). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  11. Benson, D. F., Sheremata, W. A., Bouchard, R., Segarram, J., Price, D., and Geschwind, N. (1973). Conduction aphasia. Archives of Neurology, 28, 339–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blumstein, S., and Cooper, W. E. (1974). Hemispheric processing of intonational contours, Cortex, 10, 146–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boller, F., Cole, M., Vrtunski, P. B., Patterson, M., and Kim, Y. (1979). Paralinguistic aspects of auditory comprehension in aphasia Brain and Language, 9, 164–174.Google Scholar
  14. Boller, F., and Grafman, J. (1983). Acalculia: Historical development and current significance. Brain and Cognition, 2, 205–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Boller, F., and Green, E. (1972). Comprehension in severe aphasics. Cortex, 8, 382–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradshaw, J. L., and Nettleton, N. C. (1982). Language lateralization to the dominant hemisphere: Tool use, gesture and language in hominid evolution. Current Psychological Reviews, 2, 171–192.Google Scholar
  17. Brain, R., and Walton, J. N. (1969). Brain’s diseases of the nervous system. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Carmazza A., and Zurif, E. B. (1976). Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic process in language comprehension: Evidence from aphasia. Brain and Language, 3, 572–582.Google Scholar
  19. Chaika, E. (1982). A unified explanation for the diverse structural deviations reported for adult schizophrenics with disrupted speech. Journal of Communication Disorders, 15, 167–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chapman, J. (1966). The early symptoms of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 225–251.Google Scholar
  21. Corballis, M. C., and Morgan, M. J. (1978). On the biological bais of lateality. I. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 261–269.Google Scholar
  22. Craik, K. J. W. (1943). The nature of explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Critchely, M. (1964a). The neurology of psychotic speech. British Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 353–364.Google Scholar
  24. Critchely, M. (1964b). The problem of visual agnosia. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 1, 274–290.Google Scholar
  25. Cutting, J. E. (1974). Two left hemisphere mechanisms in speech perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 601–612.Google Scholar
  26. De Boysson-Bardies, B., Bacri, N., Sagart, L., and Poizat, M. (1980). Timing in late babbling. Journal of Child Language, 8, 525–539.Google Scholar
  27. Elia, G., and Penis, C. (1974). Cerebral functional dominance and memory functioning. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 255, 143–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Denes, G., and Semenza, C. (1975). Auditory modality-specific anomia. Evidence from a case of pure word deafness. Cortex, 11, 401–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. De Renzi, E., and Vignolo, L. A. (1962). The Token test. Brain, 85, 665–678.Google Scholar
  30. DeRenzi, E., Zambolini, A., and Crisi, G. (1987). The pattern of neuropsychological impairment associated with left posterior cerebral artery infarcts. Brain, 110, 1099–1116.Google Scholar
  31. Efron, R. (1963). The effect of handedness on the perception of simultaneity and temporal order. Brain, 86, 261–284.Google Scholar
  32. Ellis, A. W. (1982). Spelling and writing (and reading and speaking. In A. W. Ellis (Ed.), Normality and pathology in cognitive functions. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Faaborg-Anderson, K. C. (1957). Electromyographic investigation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles in humans. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 140, 1–148.Google Scholar
  34. Faber, R., Abrams, R., Taylor, M., Kasprisin, A., Morris, C., and Weisz, R. (1983). Comparison of schizophrenic patients with formal thought disorder and neurologically impaired patients with aphasia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1348–1351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Flor-Henry, P. (1983). Cerebral basis of psychopathology. Boston: John Wright.Google Scholar
  36. Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. (Vol. 5.) London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  37. Friderici, A. D., Schoenle, P. W., and Goodglass, H. (1981). Mechanisms underlying writing and speech in aphasia. Brain and Language, 13, 212–222.Google Scholar
  38. Galin, D., Diamond, D. R., and Braff, D. (1977). Lateralization of conversion symptoms: More frequent on the left. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 578–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Galin, D., Diamond, R., and Herron, J. (1979a). Development of crossed and uncrossed tactile localization on the fingers. Brain and Language, 4, 588–590.Google Scholar
  40. Gallagher, R. E., and Joseph, R. (1982). Non-linguistic knowledge, hemispheric laterality, and the conservaton of inequivalence. Journal of General Psychology, 107, 31–40.Google Scholar
  41. Gardner, H. (1975). The shattered mind. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  42. Gerstmann, J. (1930). Syndrome of finger agnosia, disorientation for right and left, agraphia and acalculia. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 44, 398–408.Google Scholar
  43. Geschwind, N., Quadfasel, F. A., and Segarra, J. M. (1968). Isolation of the speech area. Neuropsychologia, 6, 327–340.Google Scholar
  44. Gloning, I., Gloning, K., Hoff, H. (1968). Neuropsychological symptoms and syndromes in lesions of the occipial lobe and the adjacent areas. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.Google Scholar
  45. Goldstein, K. (1942). After effects of brain injuries in war. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  46. Goldstein, K. (1948). Language and language disturbances. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  47. Goodglass, H., and Berko, J. (1960). Agrammatism and inflectional morphology in English. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 3, 257–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goodglass, H., and Kaplan, E. (1972). Boston diagnostic aphasia examination. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.Google Scholar
  49. Graff-Radford, N. R., Cooper, W. E., Colsher, P. L., and Damasio, A. R. (1986). An unlearned foreign “accent” in a patient with aphasia. Brain and Language, 28, 86–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Green, P., and Kontenko, V. (1980). Superior speech comprehension in schizophrenics under monaural versus binaural listening conditions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 339–408.Google Scholar
  51. Greenblatt, S. H. (1973). Alexia without agraphia or hemianopia. Brain, 96, 307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gross, C. G., Rocha-Miranda, C. E., and Bender, D. B. (1972). Visual properties of neurons in inferotemporal cortex of the macaque. Journal of Neurophysiology, 35, 96–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Halperin, Y., Nachshon, I., and Cannon, A. (1973). Shift of ear superiority in dichotic listening to temporally patterned nonverbal stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 101, 46–54.Google Scholar
  54. Hecaen, H., and Albert, M. L. (1978). Human neuropsychology. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  55. Hecaen, H., and Kremin, H. (1976). Neurolinguistic research on reading disorders from left hemisphere lesions. In H. A. Whitkaer and H. Whitaker (Eds.), Studies in neurolinguistics (pp. 47–63 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Heilman, K. M. (1979). Neglect and related disorders. In K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Heilman, K. M., Rothi, L., and Kertesz, A. (1983). Localization of apraxia-producing lesions. In A. Kertesz (Ed.), Localization in neuropsychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Heilman, K. M., Rothi, L. J., and Valenstein, E. (1982). Two forms of ideomotor apraxia. Neurology (New York), 32, 342–346.Google Scholar
  59. Heilman, K., and Scholes, R. J. (1976). The nature of comprehension errors in Broca’s conduction, and Wernicke’s aphasia. Cortex, 12, 258–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Heilman, K., Scholes, R., and Watson, R. T. (1975). Auditory affective agnosia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 38, 69–72.Google Scholar
  61. Hicks, R. E. (1975). Intrahemispheric resposne competition between voal and unimanual performance in normal adult humann males. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 89, 50–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoff-Ginsberg, E., and Shatz, M. (1982). Linguistic input and the child’s acquisition of language.Google Scholar
  63. Hoffman, R. E. (1986). Verbal hallucinations and language production processes in schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 503–548.Google Scholar
  64. Hoffman, R., Stopek, S., and Andreasen, N. (1986). A discourse analysis comparing manic versus schizophrenic speech disorganization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 831–838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hrbek, V. (1977). Pathophysiologic interpretation of Gerstmann’s syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 11, 377–388.Google Scholar
  66. Jacobsen, E. (1932). Electrophysiology of mental activities. American Journal of Psychology, 44, 677–694.Google Scholar
  67. James, W. (1961). Psychology. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  68. Joseph, R. (1980). Awareness, the origin of thought, and the role of conscious self-deception in resistance and repression. Psychological Reports, 46, 767–781.Google Scholar
  69. Joseph, R. (1982). The neuropsychology of development: Hemispheric laterality, limbic language and the origin of thought. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 4–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Joseph, R. (1986). Confabulation and delusional denial: Frontal lobe and lateralized influences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 507–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Joseph, R. (1988a). The right cerebral hemisphere: Neuropsychiatry, neuropsychology, neurodynamics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 630–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Joseph, R. (1988b). Dual mental functioning in a split-brain patient. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 770–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Joseph, R. (1989). The limbic system: Emotion, laterality, unconscious mind. Psychoanalytic Review, 44, 770–779.Google Scholar
  74. Joseph, R., Gallagher, R. E., Holloway, W., and Kahn, J. (1984). Two brains-one child. Interhemispheric transfer deficits and confabulation in children aged 3,7,10. Cortex, 20, 317–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jung, C. (1954). Experimental researches, Collected Works, II. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Jung, C. G. (1964). Man and his symbols. New York: Dell.Google Scholar
  76. Kay, J., and Ellis, A. (1987). A cognitive neuropsychological case study of anomia. Brain, 110, 613–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kertesz, A. (1983a). Localization of lesions in Wernicke’s aphasia. In A. Kertesz (Ed.), Localization in neuropsychology (pp. 150–170 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  78. Kertesz, A. (1983b). Right-hemisphere lesions in constructional apraxia and visuospatial deficit. In A. Kertesz (Ed.), Localization in neuropsychology ( 301–318 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  79. Kimura, D. (1961). Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15, 156–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kimura, D. (1963). Right temporal lobe damage: Perception of unfamiliar stimuli after damage. Archives of Neurology, 18, 264–271.Google Scholar
  81. Kimura, D. (1976). The neural basis of language qua gesture. In H. Whitaker and H. A. Whitaker (Eds.), Studies in neurolinguistics. (Vol. 2.) New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  82. Kimura, D. (1977). Acquisition of a motor skill after left-hemisphere damage. Brain, 100, 527–542. Kimura, D. (1979). Neuromotor mechanisms in the evolution of human communication. In H. D. Steklis and M. J. Raleigh (Eds.), Neurobiology of social communication in primates. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  83. Kimura, D. (1982). Left-hemisphere control of oral and brachial movement and their relation to communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 298, 135–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kimura, D., and Archibald, Y. (1974). Motor functions of the left hemisphere, Brain, 97, 337–350. Kimura, D., and Folb, S. (1968). Neural processing of backward speech sounds. Science, 161, 395–396.Google Scholar
  85. Kinsbourne, M., and Cook, J. (1971). Generalized and lateralized effect of concurrent verbalization on aGoogle Scholar
  86. unimanual skill. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23,341–345.Google Scholar
  87. Kinsbourne, M., and Warrington, E. K. (1962). A variety of reading disabilities associated with right hemisphere lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 25, 339–344.Google Scholar
  88. Kinsboume, M., and Warrington, E. K. (1964). Disorders of spelling. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 27, 224–228.Google Scholar
  89. Lackner, J. L., and Teuber, H.-L. (1973). Alterations in auditory fusion thresholds after cerebral injury in man. Neuropsychologia, 11, 409–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Landis, T., Graves, R., and Goodglass, H. (1982). Aphasic reading and writing: Possible evidence for right hemisphere participation. Cortex, 18 105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lebrun, Y. (1987). Anosognosia in aphasics. Cortex, 23, 251–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lecours, A. R. (1975). Myelogenetic correlates of the development of speech and language. In E. Lenneberg and E. Lenneberg (Eds.), Foundations of language development. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  93. Legatt, A. D., Rubin, M. J., Kaplan, L. R., Healton, G. P., and Brust, A. L. (1987). Global aphasia withoutGoogle Scholar
  94. hemiparesis. Neurology (New York),37, 201–205.Google Scholar
  95. Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  96. Leopold, W. E. (1947). Speech development of a binlingual child. (Vol. 2.) Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Levine, D. N., and Sweet, E. (1983). Localization of lesions in Broca’s motor aphasia. In A. Kertesz (Ed). Localization in neuropsychology (pp. 185–207 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  98. Levy, J. (1974). Psychological implications of bilateral asymmetry. In S. Diomond and J. G. Beaumont (Eds.), Hemisphere function in the human brain (pp. 121–132 ). London: Paul Elek, Ltd.Google Scholar
  99. Lomas, J., and Kimura, D. (1976). Intrahemispheric interactions between speaking and sequential manual activity. Neuropsychologia, 14, 23–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Luria, A. (1980). Higher cortical functions in man. New York. Basic Books.Google Scholar
  101. MacNeilage, P. F., Studdert-Kennedy, M. G., and Lindblom, B. (1987). Primate handedness reconsidered. Behavioral Brain Science, 10, 247–303.Google Scholar
  102. Marcie, P., and Hecaen, H. (1979). Agraphia. In K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology (pp. 92–126 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Marshall, J. C., and Newcombe, F. (1966). Syntactic and semantic errors in paralexia. Neuropsychologia, 4, 169–176.Google Scholar
  104. Mateer, C. A. (1983). Motor and perceptual functions of the left hemisphere and their interaction. In S. J. Segalowitz (Ed.), Language functions and brain organization (pp. 80–110 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  105. Mateer, C., and Kimura, D. (1976). Impairment of nonverbal oral movements in aphasia. Brain and Language, 4, 262–276.Google Scholar
  106. McFie, J., and Zangwill, O. L. (1960). Visual-constructive disabilities associated with lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere. Brain, 83, 243–260.Google Scholar
  107. McGuigan, F. J. (1978). Imagery and thinking. Covert functioning of the motor system. In G. E. Schwartz and D. Shapiro (Eds.), Conscousness and self regulation. (Vol. 2.) (pp. 210–240 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  108. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., and Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  109. Mills, L., and Rollman, G. B. (1980). Hemispheric asymmetry for auditory perception of temporal order. Neuropsychologia, 18, 41–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Milner, B. (1964). Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man. In J. M Warren and K. Akert (Eds.), The frontal granular cortext and behavior (pp. 313–334 ). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  111. Milner, B. (1970). Memory and the medial temporal regions of the brain. In K. Pribram and D. E. Broadbent (Eds.) Biology of memory. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  112. Milner, B., and Teuber, H. L. (1968). Alteration of perception and memory in man. In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.), Analysis of behavioral changes. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  113. Milner, E. (1967). Human neural and behavioral development. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  114. Moscovitch, M. (1973). Language and the cerebral hemispheres. In P. Pliner, et al. (Eds.), Communication and affect: Language and thought (pp. 107–170 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  115. Njiokiktjien, C. (1988). Pediatric behavioural neurology. Amsterdam: Suyi Publications.Google Scholar
  116. O’Leary, D. S. (1980). A developmental study of interhemispheric transfer in children aged 5 to 10. Child Development, 51, 743–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Papcun, G., Krashen, S., Terbeek, D., et al. (1974). Is the left hemisphere specialized for speech, language and-or something else? Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 55, 319–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Penfield, W., and Roberts, L. (1959). Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Penis, C. (1974). Averaged evoked responses (AER) in patients with affective disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 255, 1–107.Google Scholar
  119. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  120. Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams and imitations in childhood. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  121. Piaget, J. (1974). The child and reality. New York. Viking Press.Google Scholar
  122. Rizzo, M., and Hurtig, R. (1987). Looking but not seeing. Neurology (New York), 37, 1642–1646.Google Scholar
  123. Robinson, B. W. (1967). Vocalization evoked from forebrain in Macaca mulatta. Physiology and behavior, 2, 345–354.Google Scholar
  124. Robinson, R. G., and Benson, D. F. (1981). Depression in aphasic patients: Frequency, severity, and clinical-pathological correlations. Brain and Language, 14, 282–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Robinson, R. R., and Szetela, B. (1981). Mood change following left hemisphere brain injury. Annals of Neurology, 9, 447–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Roeltgen, D. P., Sevush, S., and Heilman, K. M. (1983). Pure Gerstmann’s syndrome from a focal lesion. Archives of Neurology, 40, 46–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Rothi, L. J. G., Mack, L., and Heilman, K. M. (1986). Pantomime agnosia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49, 451–454.Google Scholar
  128. Rubens, A. B. (1979). Agnosia. In K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology (pp. 233267 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Rutter, D. (1979). The reconstruction of schizphrenic speech. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 356–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Salamy, A. (1978). Commissural transmission: Maturational changes in humans. Science, 200, 1409–1411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Samuels, J. A., and Benson, D. F. (1979). Some aspects of language comprehension in anterior aphasia. Brain and Language, 8, 275–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sauguet, J., Benton, A. L., and Hecaen, H. (1971). Disturbances of the body schema in relation to language impairment and hemispheric locus of lesion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 34, 496–501.Google Scholar
  133. Schilder, P. (1951). On the development of thoughts. In D. Rappaport (Ed.), Organization and pathology of thought. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  134. Shankweiler, D., and Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1966) Lateral differences in perception of dichotically presented synthetic consonant-vowel syllables and steady-state vowels. Journal of the Society of America, 39, 1256A.Google Scholar
  135. Shankweiler, D., and Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1967). Identification of consonants and vowels presented to left and right ears. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 19, 59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Smith, A. (1966). Speech and other functions after left (dominant) hemispherectomy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 29, 467–471.Google Scholar
  137. Smith, A., and Burklund, C. W. (1966). Dominant hemispherectomy. Science, 153, 1280–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Spitz, R. A., and Wolf, K. M. (1946). The smiling response: A contribution to the ontogenesis of social relations. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 34, 57–125.Google Scholar
  139. Strub, R. L., and Geschwind, N. (1983). Localization in Gerstmann syndrome. In A. Kertesz (Ed.), Localization in neuropsychology (pp. 173–190 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  140. Studdert-Kennedy, M., and Shankweiler, D. (1970). Hemispheric specialization for speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 48, 579–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Tanaka, Y., Yamadori, A., and Mori, E. (1987). Pure word deafness following bilateral lesions. Brain, 110, 381–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Teuber, H. L. (1968). Disorders of memory following penetrating missile wounds of the brain. Neurology (New York), 18, 287–288.Google Scholar
  143. Vignolo, L. A. (1983). Modality-specific disorders of written language in A. Kertesz (Ed.), Localization in neuropsychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  144. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  145. Weinberger, D. R., Berman, K. F., and Zek, R. F. (1986). Physiological dysfunction of dorsolarteral cortex in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 114, 114–125.Google Scholar
  146. Wyke, M. (1968). The effects of lesions in the performance of an arm—hand precision task. Neuropsychologia, 6, 125–134.Google Scholar
  147. Yakovlev, P. I., and Lecours, A. (1967). The myelogenetic cycles of regional maturation of the brain. In A. Minkowski (Ed.), Regional development of the brain in early life. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  148. Yamadori, A., Osumi, U., Mashuara, S., and Okuto, M. (1977). Preservation of singing in Broca’s aphasia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 40, 221–224.Google Scholar
  149. Zaidel, E. (1977). Unilateral auditory language comprehension on the token test following cerebral cornmissurotomy and hemispherectomy. Neuropsychologia, 15, 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Zurif, E. B., Caramazza, A., and Myerson, R. (1972). Grammatical judgments on agrammatic aphasics. Neuropsychologia, 10, 405–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Zurif, E. B., and Carson, G. (1970). Dyslexia in relation to cerebral dominance and temporal analysis. Neuropsychologia, 8, 239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhawn Joseph
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurobehavioral CenterSanta ClaraUSA

Personalised recommendations