Polysialic Acid as a Regulator of Cell Interactions
Polysialic acid, referring specifically to linear homopolymers of α2-8-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid (abbreviated here as PSA), is a remarkable carbohydrate structure. The basis for this statement begins with some surprising general observations: (1) the abundant presence of this structure in three very different biological contexts [bacterial capsules (Finne, 1985; Troy, 1979), fish eggs (Kitajima et al., 1986; Inoue et al., 1987), and surfaces of a variety of vertebrate cells (Finne, 1985; Margolis and Margolis, 1983; Chuong and Edelman, 1984; Finne et al., 1987)], (2) the nearly complete restriction of vertebrate PSA to a single cell surface protein [the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)] (Hoffman et al., 1982; Finne et al., 1983), and (3) the fact that in each of these situations the carbohydrate appears to form a space or barrier around a cell. In this chapter I will focus on the molecular, cell, and tissue biology of NCAM PSA, with particular emphasis on the hypothesis (Rutishauser et al., 1988) that variations in this carbohydrate during development serve as an overall regulator of cell—cell and possibly cell—matrix interactions.
KeywordsSialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Wheat Germ Agglutinin Embryonic Chick ChAT Activity
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