Muscle Foods pp 296-332 | Cite as

Quality Characteristics

  • Rhonda K. Miller


Quality characteristics of muscle foods are influenced by muscle structure, chemical composition, chemical environment, interaction of chemical constituents, postmortem changes in muscle tissues, stress and preslaughter effects, product handling, processing and storage, microbiological numbers and populations, and meat cookery. Whereas muscle food quality is influenced by the physical characteristics of the muscle, quality is product-specific and is actually a measurement of acceptability by the consumer. This chapter will concentrate on the quality factors of muscle foods that are related to sensory characteristics, the physiological mechanisms related to quality characteristics, and how to measure these quality characteristics.


Quality Characteristic Meat Color Odor Evaluation Instron Universal Test Machine Meat Tenderness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected References

  1. Aberle, E.D., E.S. Reeves, M.D. Judge, R.E. Hunsley, and T.W. Perry. 1981. Palatability and muscle characteristics of cattle with controlled weight gain. Time on a high energy diet. J. Anim. Sci. 52: 757.Google Scholar
  2. AMSA, 1978. Guidelines of Cookery and Sensory Evaluation of Meat. American Meat Science Association, National Live Stock and Meat Board, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  3. ASTM. 1978. Compilation of Odor and Taste Threshold Values Data. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  4. Batzer, O.F., A. Santoro, and W.A. Landmann. 1962. Identification of some beef flavor precursors. J. Agric. Food Chem. 10: 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batzer, O.F., A. Santoro, M.C. Tan, W.A. Landmann and B.S. Schweigert. 1960. Precursors of beef flavor. J. Agric. Food Chem. 8: 498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowling, R.A., G.C. Smith, Z.L. Carpenter, T.R. Dutson, and W.M. Oliver. 1977. Comparison of forage-finished and grain-finished beef carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 45: 209.Google Scholar
  7. Bowling, R.A., J.K. Riggs, G.C. Smith, Z.L. Carpenter, R.L. Reddish, and O.D. Butler. 1978. Production, carcass and palatability characteristics of steers produced by different management systems. J. Anim. Sci. 46: 333.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, H.G., S.L. Melton, M.J. Riemann, and W.R. Backus. 1979. Effects of energy intake and feed source on chemical changes and flavor of ground beef during storage. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 338.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, W.D. 1962. The concentration of myoglobin and hemoglobin in tuna flesh. J. Food Sci. 27: 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cain, W.S. 1979. To know with the nose: Keys to odor identification. Science 203: 467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Calkins, C.R. and S.C. Seideman. 1988. Relationships among calcium-dependent protease, cathepsins B and H, meat tenderness, and the response of muscle to aging. J. Anim. Sci. 66: 1186.Google Scholar
  12. Campion, D.R., J.D. Crouse, and M.E. Dikeman 1975. Predictive value of USDA beef quality grade factors for cooked meat palatability. J. Food Sci. 40: 1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carpenter, Z.L. 1974. Beef quality grade standards-need for modifications? Proc. Recip. Meat Conf. 27: 122.Google Scholar
  14. Civille, G.V. 1991. Food quality: Consumer acceptance and sensory attributes. J. Food Qual. 14: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cramer, D.A., J.B. Pruett, R.M. Katting, and W.C. Schwartz. 1970. Comparing breeds of sheep. 1. Flavor differences. Proc. West. Sec. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. 21: 267.Google Scholar
  16. Cross, H.R., Z.L. Carpenter, and G.C. Smith. 1973. Effects of intramuscular collagen and elastin on bovine muscle tenderness. J. Food Sci. 38: 998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crouse, J.D., J.R. Busboom, R.A. Field, and C.L. Ferrell. 1981. The effects of breed, diet, sex, location and slaughter weight on lamb growth, carcass composition and meat flavor. J. Anim. Sci. 53: 376.Google Scholar
  18. Davis, G.W., A.B. Cole, W.R. Backus, and S.L. Melton. 1981. Effect of electrical stimulation on carcass quality and meat palatability of beef from forage-and grain-finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 53: 651.Google Scholar
  19. Desor, J.A. and G.K. Beauchamp. 1974. The human capacity to transmit olfactory information. Percep. Psychophysiol. 16: 551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dupuy, H.P., M.E. Bailey, A.J. St. Angelo, J.R. Vercellotti, and M.G. Legendre. 1987. Instrumental analyses of volatiles related to warmed-over flavor of cooked meats. In: Warmed-Over Flavor of Meat, A.J. St. Angelo and M.E. Bailey, eds. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Ekeren, P.A., D.R. Smith, D.K. Lunt, and S.B. Smith. 1992. Ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids from high-oleate sunflower seed. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 497.Google Scholar
  22. Field, R.A. 1971. Effect of castration on meat quality and quantity. J. Anim. Sci. 32: 849.Google Scholar
  23. Fox J.B., Jr. 1987. The pigments of meat. In: The Science of Meat and Meat Products, 3rd ed. J.F. Price and B.S. Schweigert, eds. Food and Nutrition Press, Inc., Wesport, CT.Google Scholar
  24. Hamann, D.D. and T.C. Lanier. 1986. Instrumental methods for predicting seafood sensory texture quality. Proc. Intern. Symp, Univ. of Alska Sea Grant Prog. Page 123. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  25. Hood, R.L. and E. Allen. 1971. Influence of sex and postmortem aging on intramuscular and subcutaneous bovine lipids. J. Food Sci. 36: 786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hornstein, I. and P.F. Crowe. 1960. Flavor studies on beef and pork. J. Agri. Food Chem. 8: 494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hornstein, I. and A. Wasserman. 1987. Part 2-Chemistry of meat flavor. In: The Science of Meat and Meat Products, 3rd ed. J.F. Price and B.S. Schweigert, eds. Food and Nutrition Press, Inc., Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  28. Hunt, M.C., J.C. Acton, R.C. Benedict, C.R. Calkins, D.P. Comforth, L.E. Jeremiah, D.G. Olson, C.P. Salm, J.W. Savell, and S.D. Shivas. 1991. Guidelines for meat color evaluation. Reciprocol Meat Conf. 44: 232Google Scholar
  29. Kemp, J.D., J.M. Shelly, Jr., D.G. Ely, and J.D. Fox. 1972. Effects of castration and slaughter weight on fatness, cooking losses and palatability of lamb. J. Anim. Sci. 34: 560.Google Scholar
  30. Koohmaraie, M., J.E. Schollmeyer, and T.R. Dutson. 1986. Effect of low-calciumrequiring calcium-activated factor on myofibrils under varying pH and temperature conditions. J. Food Sci. 51: 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Koohmaraie, M., S.C. Seidman, J.E. Schollmeyer, T.R. Dutson, and J.D. Crouse. 1987. Effect of postmortem storage on Ca’-dependent proteases, their inhibitor and myofibril fragmentation. Meat Sci. 19: 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koohmaraie, M., A.S. Babiker, R.A. Merkel, and T.R. Dutson. 1988a. The role of Cat+-dependent proteases and lysosomal enzymes in postmortem changes in bovine skeletal muscle. J. Food Sci. 53: 1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koohmaraie, M., A.S. Babiker, A.L. Shroeder, R.A. Merkel, and T.R. Dutson. 1988b. Factors associated with the tenderness of three bovine muscles. J. Food Sci. 53: 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koohmaraie, M., A.S. Babiker, A.L. Shroeder, R.A. Merkel, and T.R. Dutson. 1988c. Acceleration of postmortem tenderization in ovine carcasses through activation of CA2+-dependent proteases. J. Food Sci. 53: 1638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kramlich, W.E. and A.M. Pearson. 1958. Some preliminary studies on meat flavor. Food Res. 23: 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lawless, Harry. 1991. The sense of smell in food quality and sensory evaluation. J. Food Qual. 14: 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Locker, R.H. 1960. Degree of muscular contraction as a factor in tenderness of beef. J. Food Sci. 25: 304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Love, R.M. 1988. The Food Fishes: Their intrinsic variation and practical implications. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Love, J.D. and A.M. Pearson. 1971. Lipid oxidation in meat and meat products-A review. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 48: 547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mabrouk, A.F., J.K. Jarboe, and E.M. O’Conner 1967. Water-soluble flavor precursors of beef. Extraction and fractionation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 17: 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Melton, S.L. 1983. Effect of forage feeding on beef flavor. Food Technol. 37: 239.Google Scholar
  42. Melton, S.L., M. Amiri, G.W. Davis, and W.R. Backus. 1982a. Flavor and selected chemical characteristics of ground beef from grass-, forage-grain-and grain-finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 55: 77.Google Scholar
  43. Melton, S.L., J.M. Black, G.W. Davis, and W.R. Backus. 1982b. Flavor and selected chemical characteristics of ground beef from steers backgrounded on pasture and fed corn up to 140 days. J. Food Sci. 47: 699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Meyer, B., J. Thomas, R. Buckley, and J.W. Cole. 1960. The quality of grain-finished and grass-finished beef as affected by ripening. Food Technol. 14: 4.Google Scholar
  45. Miller, M.F., S.D. Shackelford, D.K. Hayden, and J.O. Reagan. 1990. Determination of the alteration in fatty acid profiles, sensory characteristics and carcass traits of swine fed elevated levels of monounsaturated fats in the diet. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 1624.Google Scholar
  46. Miller, R.K., J. Ophir, A.D. Whittaker, M.S. Rubio, G.C. Emesih, H. Ponnekanti, and L. Cespedes. 1993. Ultrasonic elastography to evaluate meat structure and quality. Reciprocal Meat Conf. Proc. 46: May 1994.Google Scholar
  47. Miller, R.K., L.C. Rockwell, L.A. Ray, and D.K. Lunt. 1993. Determination of the flavor attributes of cooked beef from steers fed corn or barley based diets. J. Anim. Sci. (submitted).Google Scholar
  48. Miller, R.K., J.D. Tatum, H.R. Cross, R.A. Bowling, and R.P. Clayton. 1983. Effect of carcass maturity on collagen solubility and palatability of beef from grain-finished steers. J. Food Sci. 48: 484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morgan, J.B., R.K. Miller, F.M. Mendez, D.S. Hale, and J.W. Savell. 1991. Using calcium chloride injection to improve tenderness of beef from mature cows. J. Anim. Sci. 69: 4469.Google Scholar
  50. Ophir, J., I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li. 1991. Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues. Ultrasonic Imaging 13 (2): 111.Google Scholar
  51. Park, R.J., J.L. Corbeth, and E.P. Furnival. 1972. Flavour differences in meat from lambs grazed on Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or phalaris (Phalaris tuberoso) pastures. J. Agric. Sci. 87: 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Parrish, F.C., Jr. 1974. Relationship of marbling to meat tenderness. Proc. Meat Ind. Res. Conf. p. 117.Google Scholar
  53. Pearson, A.M. 1966. Desirability of beef-its characteristics and their measurement. J. Anim. Sci. 25: 843.Google Scholar
  54. Plsek, P.E. 1987. Defining quality and the marketing development interface. Qual. Prog. 20: 28.Google Scholar
  55. Purchas, R.W. and H.L. Davies. 1974. Palatability of beef from cattle fed maize silage and pasture. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 25: 183.Google Scholar
  56. Reagan, J.O., J.A. Carpenter, F.T. Bauer, and R.S. Lowrey. 1977. Packaging and palatability characteristics of grass-and grass-grain fed beef. J. Anim. Sci. 46: 716.Google Scholar
  57. Rhee, K.S., T.L. Davidson, H.R. Cross, and Y.A. Ziprin. 1990. Characteristics of pork products from swine fed a high monounsaturated fat diet: Part I-Whole muscle products. Meat Sci. 27: 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richards, J.F. and B.C. Morison. 1969. A study of fat grade, fat content and sensory properties of turkey broilers. Can. Inst. Food Technol. J. 2: 6.Google Scholar
  59. Savell, J.W. and H.R. Cross. 1988. The role of fat in the palatability of beef, pork, and lamb. In: Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  60. Sawyer, F.M., A.V. Cardello and P.A. Prell. 1988. Consumer evaluation of the sensory properties of fish. J. Food Sci. 53: 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schroeder, J:W., D.A. Cramer, R.A. Bowling, and C.W. Cook. 1980. Palatability, shelf-life and chemical differences between forage-and grain-finished beef. J. Anim. Sci. 50: 852.Google Scholar
  62. Seideman, S.C., H.R. Cross, G.C. Smith, and P.R. Durland. 1984. Factors associated with fresh meat color: A review. J. Food Qual. 6: 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sink, J.D. 1979. Factors influencing the flavor of muscle foods. J. Food Sci. 44: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Skrede, T., T. Storebakken, and T. Naes. 1989. Color evaluation in raw, baked and smoked flesh of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) fed astaxathin or canthaxanthin. J. Food Sci. 55: 1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith, G.C. and Z.L. Carpenter. 1974. Eating quality of animal products and their fat content. In: Proc. of the Symp. on Changing the Fat Content and Composition of Anim. Products. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  66. Smith, G.C., M.I. Pike, and Z.L. Carpenter. 1974. Comparison of the palatability of goat meat and meat from four other animal species. J. Food Sci. 39: 1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Solberg, T., E. Tidemann, and M. Martens. 1986. Sensory profiling of cooked, peeled and individually frozen shrimps (Panduaus borealis) and investigation of sensory changes during frozen storage. In: Proc. Intern. Symp. Univ. of Alaska Sea Grant Prog. Page 109. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  68. Summers, R.L., J.D. Kemp, D.G. Ely, and J.D. Fox. 1978. Effects of weaning, feeding systems and sex of lamb on lamb characteristics and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 47: 622.Google Scholar
  69. Tatum, D.J. 1980. Is tenderness nutritionally controlled? Proc. Rec. Meat Conf. 34: 65.Google Scholar
  70. Tatum, J.D., G.C. Smith, B.W. Berry, C.E. Murphey, F.L. Williams, and Z.L. Carpenter. 1980. Carcass characteristics, time on feed and cooked beef palatability attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 50: 833.Google Scholar
  71. Wanderstock, J.J. and J.I. Miller. 1948. Quality and palatability of beef as affected by method of feeding and carcass grade. Food Res. 13: 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wasserman, A.E. and F. Tally. 1968. Organoleptic identification of roasted beef, veal, lamb and pork as affected by fat. J. Food Sci. 33: 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Weller, M., M.W. Galgam, and M. Jacobson. 1962. Flavor and tenderness of lamb as influenced by agriculture. J. Anim. Sci. 21: 927.Google Scholar
  74. Westerling, D.B. and H.B. Hedrick. 1979. Fatty acid composition of bovine lipids as influenced by diet, sex and anatomical location and relationship to sensory characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 1343.Google Scholar
  75. Wu, J.J., D.M. Allen, M.C. Hunt, C.L. Kastner, and D.H. Kropf. 1981. Nutritional effects on beef palatability and collagen characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 51 (suppl. 1): 71.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhonda K. Miller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations