Neurotransmitter Activation of Second Messenger Pathways for the Control of Growth Cone Behaviors

  • S. B. Kater
  • L. R. Mills
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 265)


The neuronal growth cone is now well recognized as one of the primary organelles responsible for the generation, alteration, and regeneration of neuronal form and connectivity (see review by Kater and Letourneau, 1985). The term neuronal growth cone was given by Ramon y Cajal (1890), to define the broad, flattened, lamellapodia and numerous filopodia that characterize the tip of a growing neunte. The growth cone is a highly dynamic structure; the lamellapodium and filopodia continuously move as the growth cone “explores” its environment. Discriminatory behavior is characteristic of motile growth cones; frequently the growth cone turns, branches, or even stops, apparently in response to invisible cues. Once growth cone motility, and hence neurite elongation ceases growth cone morphology also changes; the growth cone rounds up as the lamellapodium and filopodia are withdrawn.


Nerve Growth Factor Intracellular Calcium Growth Cone Intracellular Calcium Concentration Neurite Elongation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bastiani, M.J., Doe, C.Q., Helfand, S.L., and Goodman, C.S., 1985, Neuronal specificity and growth cone guidance in grasshopper and Drosophila embryos. TINS: 8 257.Google Scholar
  2. Bentley, D., and Toroian-Raymond. A.,1986, Disoriented pathfinding by pioneer neurons growth cones deprived of filopodia by cytochalasin treatment. Nature (Lond.) 323: 712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bray, D. 1973, Branching patterns of individual sympathetic neurons in culture. J.Cell. Biol. 56: 702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohan, C. S. and Kater, S.B., 1986, Suppression of neunte elongation and growth cone motility by electrical activity. Science 232: 1638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Forscher,C., Kaczmarek, L. K., Buchanan, J., and Smith, S. J.,1987, Cyclic AMP induces changes in the distribution and transport of organelles within growth cones of Aplysia bag neurons. J. Neurosci., 7: 3600.Google Scholar
  6. Gunderson, R. W., and Barrett, J. N.,1980, Characterization of the turning response of dorsal root neuntes towards nerve growth factor. J. Cell Biol. 87: 546.Google Scholar
  7. Gunderson, R.W., 1985, Sensory neunte growth cone guidance by substrate adsorbed nerve growth factor. J. Neurosci. Res. 13: 199.Google Scholar
  8. Guthrie, P.B., Mattson, M.P., Mills, L.R., and Kater, S.B., 1988, “Calcium homeostasis in molluscan and mammalian neurons: Neuron-selective set-point of calcium rest concentration.” Soc.Neurosci.Abstr.Google Scholar
  9. Guthrie, P. B., Lee, R.B., and Kater,S.B., 1989, A Comparison of Neuronal Growth Cone and Cell Body Membrane: Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Properties. in press, J. Neurosci.Google Scholar
  10. Hadley R. D., D. A. Bodnar and S. B. Kater, 1985, Formation of electrical synapses between isolated, cultured Helisoma neurons requires mutual neunte elongation. J. Neurosci. 5: 3145.Google Scholar
  11. Haydon, P. G., Cohan, C. S., McCobb, D. P. Miller, H. R. and Kater, S. B.,1985, Neuron-Specific growth cone properties as seen in identified neurons of Helisoma. Neurosci. Res. 13: 135.Google Scholar
  12. Haydon, P. G., McCobb, D. P., Kater, S. B.,1987, The regulation of neurite outgrowth, growth cone motility, and electrical synaptogenesis by serotonin. J. Neurobiol. 18: 197.Google Scholar
  13. Kater, S.B., and Guthrie, P.B., 1988, The neuronal growth cone calcium regulation of a presecretory structure. In “Sectretion and its control” eds. C.M. Armstrong and G.S. Oxford Wiley Interscience New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Kater, S. B. and Letourneau, P., editors 1985: “The Biology of the Neuronal Growth Cone”. Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Kater, S. B., Mattson,M.,. Cohan, C., Connor,J., 1988, Calcium Regulation of the Neuronal Growth Cone, Trends in Neurosci. 11: 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lankford, K. L., DeMello, F. G., and Klein, W. L. 1988 ) D1 dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retinal neurons; evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenetic growth regulators in the developing nervous system. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 85: 45671.Google Scholar
  17. Lauder, J. M., 1987, Neurotransmitters as morphogenetic signals and trophic factors. in: “Model systems of development and aging of the nervous system” edited by A. Vemadakis, A. Privat, J. M. Lauder, P. S. Timiras and E. Giacobini, Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Bostons?.119Google Scholar
  18. Lipton, S. A., Frosch, M. P., Phillips, M. D., Tauck, D. L., and Aizenman, E.,1988, Nicotinic agonists enhance process outgrowth by retinal ganglion cells in culture. Science 239: 1293.Google Scholar
  19. Lopresti, V., Macagno, E. R., and Levinthal, C. 1973, Structure and development of neuronal connections in isogenic organisms: cellular interactions in the development of the optic lamina of Daphnia. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 70: 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mattson, M. P., Dou, P., and Kater, S.B.,. 1988, Outgrowth-regulating actions of glutamate in isolated hippocampal pyramidal neurons. J. Neurosci. 8: 2087.Google Scholar
  21. Mattson, M. P., and Kater, S.B., 1988, Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the generation and degeneration of hippocampal neuroarchitecture. Brain Research 478: 337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mattson, M. P., Taylor-Hunter, A. and Kater, S.B., 1988, Neunte outgrowth in individual neurons of a neuronal population is differentially regulated by calcium and cyclic AMP. J. Neurosci. 8: 1704.Google Scholar
  23. Mattson, M.P., Guthrie,P.B., and Kater, S.B., 1989, Intracellular messengers in the generation and degeneration of hippocampal neuroarchitecture. J. Neurosci. Res. 21: 447.Google Scholar
  24. McCobb, D. P., Cohan,C. S, Connor,J.A., and Kater,S.B., 1988, Interactive effects of serotonin and acetylcholine on neunte elongation. Neuron 1: 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCobb, D. P. and Kater, S.B., 1988, Dopamine and serotonin inhibition of neunte elongation of different identified neurons. J. Neurosci. Res. 19: 19.Google Scholar
  26. McCobb, D. P., and Kater, S.B., 1988, Membrane voltage and neurotransmitter regulation of neuronal growth cone motility. Developmental Biology. 130: 599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramon y Cajal, S., 1890,: A quelle epoque apparaissent les expansions des cellules nerveuses de la moelle epiniere du poulet. Anat.Anz. 5: 609.Google Scholar
  28. Shaw, G., and Bray, D., 1977, Movement and extension of isolated growth cones. Exp.Cell Res. 104: 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thoenen, H., and Barde, Y.A., 1980, Physiology of nerve growth factor. Physiol. Rev. 60: 1284.Google Scholar
  30. Wong, R. G., Hadley, R, Kater, S.B., and G. Hauser, G., 1981, Neunte outgrowth in molluscan organ and cell cultures: the role of conditioning factor(s). J. Neurosci. 1: 1008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. B. Kater
    • 1
  • L. R. Mills
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology Program in Neuronal Growth and DevelopmentColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations