Models of Vergence and Accommodation-Vergence Interactions

  • Bai-chuan Jiang
  • George K. Hung
  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
Part of the Topics in Biomedical Engineering International Book Series book series (TOBE)


Vergence (or disjunctive) eye movements provide single vision by bringing the images of a bifixation target onto corresponding retinal points in the two eyes. When a target moves in depth, the brain recognizes the change in position of the retinal images and drives the extraocular muscles to bring these images into proper register on the retinas. Since vergence eye movements reflect the function of the brain, quantitative assessment of these movements can reveal fundamental information regarding the brain’s underlying neural control strategy. For this reason, an understanding of how vergence is controlled in both normal and symptomatic individuals has been one of the most important goals of vision scientists, clinicians, and bioengineers. This chapter provides a summary of some of the most significant research on modeling of the vergence system, as well as the interactions between accommodation and vergence.


Leaky Integrator Retinal Disparity fIxation Disparity Accommodative Response Disparity Stimulus 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bai-chuan Jiang
    • 1
  • George K. Hung
    • 2
  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Optometry, Health Professions DivisionNova Southeastern UniversityFt. LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of Vision SciencesState University of New York, State College of OptometryNew YorkUSA

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