Models of Accommodation

  • George K. Hung
  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
  • Madjid Khosroyani
  • Bai-Chuan Jiang
Part of the Topics in Biomedical Engineering International Book Series book series (TOBE)


The ability to see clearly at different distances is one of the most important functions of the human visual system. This is performed routinely and effortlessly in daily life by the process called accommodation. During this process, the accommodation system must sense that a new target is defocused beyond a blur threshold, develop the appropriate neurological control signal based on blur magnitude, and then adjust relatively rapidly the optics of the eye via the ciliary muscle until the target is once again in focus. Thus, it involves feedback regulation of visual optics via the sensing of retinal image blur. In addition, since blur per se does not provide the light vergence direction (Stark, 1968), the accommodation system must use perceptual cues and other sources of information to determine the appropriate direction of focus (Ciuffreda, 1991, 1998). It does this remarkably well, so that rarely does accommodation occur in the wrong direction under natural viewing conditions. Moreover, accommodation takes place repeated in daily life, so that the system must be continually available to provide clear vision in the performance of a variety of tasks at a range of different distances.


Instability Oscillation Ciliary Muscle Accommodative Response Schematic Accommodation Saturation Element 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • George K. Hung
    • 1
  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
    • 2
  • Madjid Khosroyani
    • 3
  • Bai-Chuan Jiang
    • 4
  1. 1.Dept. of Biomedical EngineeringRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of Vision SciencesState University of New York, State College of OptometryNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Tarbiat Modarres UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.College of Optometry, Health Professions DivisionNova Southeastern UniversityFt. LauderdaleUSA

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