Multi-Sensory Feedback Therapy for Oculomotor Dysfunction

  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
  • Barry Tannen
  • Daniella Rutner
Part of the Topics in Biomedical Engineering International Book Series book series (TOBE)


Biofeedback refers to the process of gaining voluntary control over some bodily function by immediate use of information regarding its physiological state. Thus, the individual is provided immediate information from biological processes normally beyond their awareness, thereby facilitating the regulation of these same functions (Brown, 1977; Wolf, 2001). The experimental applications of this technique have continued to grow, and the method has been used to control such disparate physiological processes as blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tension, brain wave activity, galvanic skin response, intestinal motility, and skin temperature (Fuller, 1978; Lee et al, 1977; Spilker, 1991). Biofeedback training has been used in the medical treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, neuromuscular dysfunction, circulatory insufficiency, migraine, autonomic dysfunction, and chronic anxiety. The general biofeedback therapy paradigm is three-fold: (1) to provide information related to system variation/state that the individual learns to control, (2) to withdraw this information gradually, once control is well-learned, and (3) to provide occasional “reinforcement” using the prior auxiliary feedback information to maintain the newly-learned ability.


Visual Feedback Auditory Feedback Reading Rate Tactile Feedback Biofeedback Therapy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
    • 1
  • Barry Tannen
    • 2
  • Daniella Rutner
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Vision SciencesState Univ. of New York, State College of OptometryNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of Clinical SciencesState University of New York, State College of OptometryNew YorkUSA

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