• M. S. Sodha
  • N. C. Srivastava


All materials interact with externally applied magnetic fields. When the constituents (atoms, molecules, or ions) of a material do not possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment, the interaction of the material with the magnetic field is rather weak and a sample of such a material is repelled from the regions of high magnetic field (diamagnetic behavior). On the other hand, if the constituents of the material do possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment (which may arise from the spin and orbital motion of electrons), it is attracted toward the regions of high magnetic field because the magnetic dipoles have a tendency to align themselves along the direction of the biasing field (paramagnetic behavior). Some of the paramagnetic crystalline solids, when cooled below certain critical temperatures, exhibit magnetic order*; even in the absence of an external magnetic field; this leads to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetic ordering takes place on account of exchange interaction, which has a quantum mechanical origin, discussed at length by Anderson (1963a, b). As a consequence of the exchange interaction, the successive magnetic dipoles are generally aligned either parallel (ferromagnetic behavior) or antiparallel. In the latter case, the magnetic lattice can be looked upon as comprising a number of sublattices, each of which consists of identical magnetic dipoles oriented along a specific crystallographic direction. The net magnetization of the crystal is thus the vector sum of the magnetizations of different sublattices; this may be zero (antiferromagnetic behavior) or finite (ferrimagnetic behavior). The critical temperature at which the transition from the paramagnetic state to the magnetically ordered state is observed is called the Curie temperature for ferromagnetic materials and the Néel temperature for antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials.


Magnetic Dipole Internal Field Anisotropy Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Permeability Tensor 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Sodha
    • 1
  • N. C. Srivastava
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of TechnologyNew DelhiIndia

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