External Labeling of Cell Surface Carbohydrates

  • Carl G. Gahmberg
  • Koichi Itaya
  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori


An increasing amount of evidence indicates that control of growth behavior and proliferation of animal cells depend on their profiles of surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. It is also likely that the organization and assemblage of glycoprotein and glycolipid in membranes can be correlated with tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of animal cells (for reviews see Ginsburg and Kobata, 1971; Hakomori, 1973). The reasons for believing that complex carbohydrates on cell surfaces play important roles in controlling cell division and cellular recognition are that the structure, composition, and organization of these components change in association with “contact inhibition” (Hakomori, 1970; Robbins and Macpherson, 1971; Sakiyama et al., 1972; Critchley and Macpherson, 1973), cell aggregation (Moscona, 1973; Henkart et al., 1973; Roth et al., 1971; Gottlieb et al., 1974), mitotic cell cycle (Chatterjee et al., 1973; Gahmberg and Hakomori, 1974), and malignant transformation (for reviews see Brady and Fishman, 1974; Hakomori, 1975). In these processes, only those structures that are exposed to the external environment of cells can receive and transmit extracellular informations and only these structures can be recognized by other cells or extracellular molecules. The surface-exposed carbohydrates of cells are, therefore, of great cell-biological significance, and it has become increasingly important to elucidate the exposed chemical structures.


Sialic Acid Label Pattern Rous Sarcoma Virus Human Erythrocyte Membrane Surface Label 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl G. Gahmberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • Koichi Itaya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Pathobiology and MicrobiologyUniversity of Washington School of Public Health and School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Biochemical OncologyHutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA

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