Methods of Isolation and Characterization of Bacterial Membranes

  • Milton R. J. Salton

Abstract

It is now well documented that the major structural features (apart from size and shape) distinguishing prokaryotic bacterial cells from eukaryotic cells relate to the nature and organization of membrane systems, the nucleus, and the “packaging” of functions in membranous organelles. Anatomically, the majority of bacterial cells are relatively undifferentiated with respect to intracellular membrane-bound structures. Thus the bacterial nucleus lacks a nuclear membrane, there are no separate mitochondrial organelles, and the respiratory functions are localized in the multifunctional plasma membrane of the bacterial cell. A membranous endoplasmic reticulum similar to that of eukaryotic cells is not seen, although evidence has been presented for the organization of the ribosomes on a fine supporting structure or matrix of smaller dimensions (Schlessinger et al, 1965; van Iterson, 1965). Other membrane-bounded organelles such as the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes are absent, although there have been suggestions, along with a great number of others, that the mesosomes may fulfill some of these cellular functions (for review, see Ellar, 1970; Stanier, 1970; Salton, 1971a,b; Ghosh, 1974).

Keywords

Outer Membrane Membrane Fraction Bacterial Membrane Bacillus Megaterium Purple Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, A., 1958, O-Acetyl groups in the cell wall of Streptococcus faecalis, J. Biol. Chem. 230:949–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams, A., 1965, The release of bound adenosine triphosphatase from isolated bacterial membranes and the properties of the solubilized enzyme, J. Biol. Chem. 240:3675–3681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreoli, A. J., Saranto, J., Baecker, P. A., Suehiro, S., Escamilla, E., and Steiner, A., 1975, Biochemical properties of forespores isolated from Bacillus cereus, in: Spores VI (P. Gerhardt, R. N. Costilow, and H. L. Sadoff, eds.), pp. 418–424, American Society for Microbiology.Google Scholar
  4. Araki, Y., Nakatani, T., Nakayama, K., and Ito, E., 1972, Occurrence of iV-nonsubstitut-ed glucosamine residue in peptidoglycan of lysozyme-resistant cell walls from Bacillus cereus, J. Biol. Chem. 247:6312–6321.Google Scholar
  5. Bayer, M. E., 1968, Areas of adhesion between wall and membrane of Escherichia coli, J. Gen. Microbiol. 53:395–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, R. M., Mavis, R. D., Osborn, M. J., and Vagelos, P. R., 1971, Enzymes of phospholipid metabolism: Loc alization in the cytoplasmic and outer membrane of the cell envelope of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 249:628–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Benedetti, E. L., and Emmelot, P., 1968, Structure and function of plasma membranesisolated from liver, in : The Membranes, Vol. 4 (A. J. Dalton and F. Haguenau, eds.), pp. 33–120, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Birdsell, D. C, and Cota-Robles, E. H., 1967, Production and ultrastructure of lysozyme and ethylenediaminetetraacetate-lysozyme spheroplasts of Escherichia coli,J. Bacteriol 93:421–411.Google Scholar
  9. Blaurock, A. E., and Stoeckenius, W., 1971, Structure of the purple membrane, Nature (London), New Biol. 233:152–154.Google Scholar
  10. Braun, V., and Hantke, K., 1974, Biochemistry of bacterial cell envelopes, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 43:89–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bretscher, M. S., 1972, Asymmetrical lipid bilayer structure for biological membranes, Nature (London), New Biol. 236:11–12.Google Scholar
  12. Briles, E., 1974, Studies on the teichoic acids of the pneumococcus, Ph. D. thesis, Rockefeller University, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Browder, H. P., Zygmunt, W. A., Young, J. R., and Tavormina, P. A., 1965, Lysostaphin: Enzymatic mode of action, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 19:383–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, A. D., Shorey, C. D., and Turner, H. P., 1965, An alternative method of isolating the membrane of a halophilic bacterium, J. Gen. Microbiol. 41:225–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brumfitt, W., Wardlaw, A. C, and Park, J. T., 1958, Development of lysozyme resistance in Micrococcus lysodeikticus and its association with an increased O-acetyl content of the cell wall, Nature (London), 181:1783–1784.Google Scholar
  16. Cho, K. Y., Pope, L., and Wyss, O., 1974, Formation of protoplasts in Azotobacter vinelandii,Arch. Microbiol. 101:337–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen-Bazire, G., and Kunisawa, R., 1963, The fine structure of Rhodospirillum rubrum,J. Cell Biol. 16:401–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Coyette, J., and Shockman, G. D., 1973, Some properties of the autolytic N-acetylmuramidase of Lactobacillus acidophilus, J. Bacteriol. 114:34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Daniels, M. J., 1969, Lipid synthesis in relation to the cell cycle of Bacillus megaterium KM and Escherichia coli, Biochem. J. 115:697–701.Google Scholar
  20. DeKruyff, B., Demel, R. A., and van Deenen, L. L. M., 1972, The effect of cholesterol and epicholesterol incorporation on the permeability and on the phase transition of intact Acholeplasma laidlawii cell membranes and derived liposomes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 255:331–347.Google Scholar
  21. DePamphilis, M. L., 1971, Dissociation and reassembly of Escherichia coli outer membrane and of lipopolysaccharide, and their reassembly onto flagellar basal bodies, J. Bacteriol. 105:1184–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. De Petris, S., 1967, Ultrastructure of the cell wall of Escherichia coli and chemical nature of its constituent layers, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 19:45–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. De Siervo, A. J., and Salton, M. R. J., 1971, Biosynthesis of cardiolipin in the membranes of Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 239:280–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. De Voe, I. W., Thompson, J., Costerton, J. W., and MacLeod, R. A., 1970, Stability and comparative transport capacity of cells, mureinoplasts, and true protoplasts of a gram-negative bacterium, J. Bacteriol. 101:1014–1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellar, D. J., 1970, The biosynthesis of protective surface structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, in: Organization and Control in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (H. P. Charles and B. C. J. G. Knight, eds.), pp. 167–202, Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  26. Ellar, D. J., and Freer, J. H., 1969, The isolation and characterization of mesosome material from Micrococcus lysodeikticus, J. Gen. Microbiol. 58:vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellar, D. J., Thomas, T. D., and Postgate, J. A., 1971, Properties of mesosomal membranes isolated from Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Bacillus megaterium,Biochem. J. 122:44P.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ellar, D. J., Eaton, M. W., Hogarth, C., Wilkinson, B. J., Deans, J., and La Nauze, J., 1975, Comparative biochemistry and function of forespore and mother-cell compartments during sporulation of Bacillus megaterium cells, in : Spores VI (P. Gerhardt, R. N. Costilow, and H. L. Sadoff, eds.), pp. 425–433, American Society for Microbiology.Google Scholar
  29. Ensign, J. C, and Wolfe, R. S., 1966, Characterization of a small proteolytic enzyme which lyses bacterial cell walls, J. Bacteriol. 91:524–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ferrandes, B., Chaix, P., and Ryter, 1966, Localization des cytochromes de Bacillus subtilis dans les structures mésosomiques, C. R. Acad. Sci. 263:1632–1635.Google Scholar
  31. Fitz-James, P. C, 1960, Participation of the cytoplasmic membrane in the growth and spore formation of bacilli, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 8:507–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fitz-James, P. C, 1967, A functional and structural comparison of separated fractions of mesosomes and plasma membrane of bacteria, Protides Biol. Fluids 15:289–301.Google Scholar
  33. Fooke-Achterrath, M., Lickfeld, K. G., Reusch, V. M., Jr., Aebi, U., Tschöpe, U., and Menge, B., 1974, Close-to-life preservation of Staphylococcus aureus mesosomes for transmission electron microscopy, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 49:270–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fraker, P. J., and Kaplan, S., 1971, Isolation and fractionation of the photosynthetic membranous organelles from Rhodopseudomonas spheroides,J. Bacteriol. 108:465–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Frehel, C., Ferrandes, B., and Ryter, A., 1971, Réactions d’oxidoréduction au niveau des membranes cytoplasmiques et mésosomiques de Bacillus subtilis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 234:226–241.Google Scholar
  36. Ghosh, B. K., 1974, The mesosome—A clue to the evolution of the plasma membrane, Sub-Cell. Biochem. 3:311–367.Google Scholar
  37. Ghosh, B. K., and Murray, R. G. E., 1969, Fractionation and characterization of the plasma and mesosome membrane of Listeria monocytogenes,J. Bacteriol. 97:426–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghuysen, J.-M., 1968, Use of bacteriolytic enzymes in determination of wall structure and their role in cell metabolism, Bacteriol. Rev. 32:425–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gibson, K. D., Segen, B. J., and Niederman, R. A., 1972. Membranes of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. II. Precursor-product relations in anaerobically growing cells, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 152:561–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Glauert, A. M., and Thornley, M. J., 1969, The topography of the bacterial cell wall, Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 23:159–198.Google Scholar
  41. Gorchein, A., Neuberger, A., and Tait, G. H., 1968, The isolation and characterization of subcellular fractions from pigmented and unpigmented cells of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides,Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B170:229–246.Google Scholar
  42. Gray, G. W., and Thurman, P. F., 1967, A membrane fraction obtained by disintegration of cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 135:947–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Greenawalt, J. W., 1974, The isolation of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, in: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 31 (S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, eds.), pp. 310–323, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Hash, J. H., Wishnick, M., and Miller, P. A., 1964, Formation of “protoplasts” of Staphylococcus aureus with a fungal N-acetylhexosaminidase, J. Bacteriol. 87:432–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hendler, R. W., 1968, Protein Biosynthesis and Membrane Biochemistry, p. 296, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Higgins, M. L., and Shockman, G. D., 1971, Procaryotic cell division with respect to wall and membranes, CRC Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 1:29–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hirachi, Y., Kotani, S., Suginaka, H., and Kato, K., 1971, Preparation of cytoplasmic membranes of Staphylococcus aureus FDA209P through protoplasts made with the L-11 enzyme and a preliminary analysis of membrane antigens, Biken J. 14:11–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Holt, S. C., and Marr, A. G., 1965, Isolation and purification of the intracytoplasmic membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum, J. Bacteriol. 89:1413–1420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Huang, J. W., and Kaplan, S., 1973, Membrane proteins of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. III. Isolation, purification, and characterization of cell envelope proteins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 307:301–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hughes, D. E., 1962, The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, J. Gen. Microbiol. 29:39–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnston, K. H., and Gotschlich, E. C., 1974, Isolation and characterization of the outer membrane of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, J. Bacteriol. 119:250–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Joseph, R., and Shockman, G. D., 1974, Autolytic formation of protoplasts (autoplasts) of Streptococcus faecalis 9790: Release of cell wall, autolysin and formation of stable autoplasts, J. Bacteriol. 118:735–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaback, H. R., 1972, Transport across isolated bacterial cytoplasmic membranes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 265:367–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kato, K., Matsubara, T., Mori, Y., and Kotani, S., 1960, “Protoplast” formation in Staphylococcus aureus using the lytic enzyme produced by a Flavobacterium,Biken J. 3:201–203.Google Scholar
  55. Kellenberger, E., and Ryter, A., 1958, Cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli,J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 4:323–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ketchum, P. A., and Holt, S. C, 1970, Isolation and characterization of the membranes from Rhodospirillum rubrum, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 196:141–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Knox, K. W., and Wicken, A. J., 1973, Immunological properties of teichoic acids, Bacteriol. Rev. 37:215–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lascelles, J., 1968, The bacterial photosynthetic apparatus, in : Advances in Microbial Physiology, Vol. 2 (A. H. Rose and J. F. Wilkinson, eds.), pp. 1–42, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Leive, L., 1974, The barrier function of the gram-negative envelope, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 235:109–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Litwack, G., and Pramer, D., 1956, Growth of Micrococcus lysodeikticus as substrate for lysozyme, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 91:290–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. MacKenzie, C. R., and Jordan, D. C., 1973, The isolation of the plasma membrane from a gram-negative organism, Prep. Biochem. 3:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Martin, E. L., and MacLeod, R. A., 1971, Isolation and chemical composition of the cytoplasmic membrane of a gram-negative bacterium, J. Bacteriol. 105:1160–1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. McQuillen, K., 1960, Bacterial protoplasts, in: The Bacteria, Vol. 1 (I. C. Gunsalus and R. Y. Stanier, eds.), pp. 249–359, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Metcalf, R. H., and Deibel, R. H., 1969, Differential lytic response of enterococci associated with addition order of lysozyme and anions, J. Bacteriol. 99:674–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mirelman, D., and Sharon, N., 1972, Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan by a cell wall preparation of Staphylococcus aureus and its inhibition by penicillin, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46:1909–1917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mirelman, D., Bracha, R., and Sharon, N., 1974, Studies on the elongation of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and its inhibition by penicillin, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 235: 326–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mitchell, P., and Moyle, J., 1957, Autolytic release and osmotic properties of “protoplasts” from Staphylococcus aureus, J. Gen. Microbiol. 16:184–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Miura, T., and Mizushima, S., 1969, Separation and properties of outer and cytoplasmic membranes in Escherichia coli, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 193:268–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mizushima, S., and Yamada, H., 1975, Isolation and characterization of two outer membrane preparations from Escherichia coli, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 375:44–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mosser, J. L., and Tomasz, A., 1970, Choline-containing teichoic acid as a structural component of pneumococcal cell wall and its role in sensitivity to lysis by an autolytic enzyme, J. Biol. Chem. 245:287–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Muñoz, E., Nachbar, M. S., Schor, M. T., and Salton, M. R. J., 1968, Adenosine-triphosphatase of Micrococcus lysodeikticus: Selective release and relationship to membrane structure, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 32: 539–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Muñoz, E., Salton, M. R. J., Ng, M. H., and Schor, M. T., 1969, Membrane adenosine triphosphatase of Micrococcus lysodeikticus: Purification, properties of the “soluble” enzyme and properties of the membrane-bound enzyme, Eur. J. Biochem. 7:490–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Murray, R. G. E., 1963, On the cell wall structure of Spirillum serpens,Can. J. Microbiol. 9:381–392.Google Scholar
  74. Murray, R. G. E., 1968, Bacterial cell wall anatomy in relation to the formation of spheroplasts and protoplasts, in: Microbial Protoplasts, Spheroplasts and L-forms (L. B. Guze, ed.), pp. 1–16, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  75. Murray, R. G. E., Steed, P., and Elson, H. E., 1965, The location of the mucopeptide in sections of the cell wall of Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria, Can. J. Microbiol. 11:547–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Nachbar, M. S., and Salton, M. R. J., 1970a, Characteristics of lipid-rich NADH dehy-drogenase-containing particulate fraction obtained from Micrococcus lysodeikticus membranes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 223:309–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Nachbar, M. S., and Salton, M. R. J., 1970a, Dissociation of functional markers in bacterial membranes, in: Surface Chemistry of Biological Systems, pp. 175–190, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Neujahr, H. Y., Börstad, B., and Logardt, I.-M., 1973, Factors affecting the resistance of Lactobacillus fermenti to lysozyme, J. Bacteriol. 116:694–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Niederman, R. A., and Gibson, K. D., 1971, The separation of chromatophores from the cell envelope in Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, Prep. Biochem. 1:141–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Niederman, R. A., Segen, B. J., and Gibson, K. D., 1972, Membranes of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. I. Isolation and characterization of membrane fractions from extracts of aerobically and anaerobically grown cells, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 152: 547–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nugent, K. M., Huff, E., Cole, R. M., and Theodore, T. S., 1974, Cellular location of degradative enzymes in Staphylococcus aureus, J. Bacteriol. 120:1012–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Oelze, J., and Drews, G., 1972, Membranes of photosynthetic bacteria, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 265:209–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Oelze, J., Biedermann, M., and Drews, G., 1969, Die Morphogenese des Photosynthese-apparates von Rhodospirillum rubrum. I. Die Isolierung und Charakterisierung von zwei Membransystemen, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 173:436–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Oesterhelt, D., and Stoeckenius, W., 1971, Rhodopsin-like protein from the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium, Nature (London), New Biol. 233:149–152.Google Scholar
  85. Oesterhelt, D., and Stoeckenius, W., 1974, Isolation of the cell membrane of Halobacterium halobium and its fractionation into red and purple membrane, in : Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 31 (S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, eds.), pp. 667–678, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Ohye, D. F., and Murrell, W. G., 1962, Formation and structure of the spore of Bacillus coagulans, J. Cell Biol. 14:111–123.Google Scholar
  87. Op den Kamp, J. A. F., van Iterson, W., and van Deenen, L. L. M., 1967, Studies on the phospholipids and morphology of protoplasts of Bacillus megaterium, Biochim. Bio-phys. Acta 135:862–884.Google Scholar
  88. Op den Kamp, J. A. F., Bonsen, P. P. M., and van Deenen, L. L. M., 1969, Structural investigations of glucosaminyl phosphatidylglycerol from Bacillus megaterium,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 176:298–305.Google Scholar
  89. Oppenheim, J. D., and Salton, M. R. J., 1973, Localization and distribution of Micrococcus lysodeikticus membrane ATPase determined by ferritin labeling, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 298:297–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Osborn, M. J., and Munson, R., 1974, Separation of the inner (cytoplasmic) and outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria, in: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 31 (S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, eds.), pp. 642–653, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Osborn, M. J., Gander, J. E., Parisi, E., and Carson, J., 1972a, Mechanism of assembly of the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium, J. Biol. Chem. 247:3962–3972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Osborn, M. J., Gander, J. E., and Parisi, E., 1972b, Mechanism of assembly of the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium: Site of synthesis of lipopolysaccharide, J. Biol. Chem. 247:3973–3986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Owen, P., and Freer, J. H., 1972, Isolation and properties of mesosomal membrane fractions from Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Biochem. J. 129:907–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Owen, P., and Salton, M. R. J., 1975a, Use of lectin concanavalin A in the preparation of mesosomal membrane fractions from Micrococcus lysodeikticus,Microbios 13:27–39.Google Scholar
  95. Owen, P., and Salton, M. R. J., 1975a, A succinylated mannan in the membrane system of Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 63:875–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Patch, C. T., and Landman, O., 1971, Comparison of the biochemistry and rates of synthesis of mesosomal and peripheral membranes in Bacillus subtilis,J. Bacteriol. 107:345–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Pollock, J. J., Nguyen-Disteche, M., Ghuysen, J.-M., Coyette, J., Linder, R., Salton, M. R. J., Kim, K. S., Perkins, H. R., and Reynolds, P., 1974, Fractionation of the DD-carboxypeptidase activities solubilized from membranes of Escherichia coli K12, strain 44, Eur. J. Biochem. 41:439–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pontefract, R. D., Bergeron, G., and Thatcher, F. S., 1969, Mesosomes in Escherichia coli,J. Bacteriol. 97: 367–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Popkin, T. J., Theodore, T. S., and Cole, R. M., 1971, Electron microscopy during release and purification of mesosomal vesicles and protoplast membranes from Staphylococcus aureus,J. Bacteriol. 107:907–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Razin, S., 1973, Physiology of mycoplasmas, Adv. Microb. Physiol. 10:1–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Reaveley, D. A., 1968, The isolation and characterization of cytoplasmic membrane and mesosomes of Bacillus licheniformis 6346, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 30:649–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Reaveley, D. A., and Rogers, H. J., 1969, Some enzymatic activities and chemical properties of the mesosomes and cytoplasmic membranes of Bacillus licheniformis 6346, Biochem. J. 113:67–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Remsen, C. C, and Watson, S. W., 1972, Freeze-etching of bacteria, Int. Rev. Cytol. 33: 253–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Remsen, C. C., Valois, F. W., and Watson, S. W., 1967, Fine structure of the cytomembranes of Nitrosocystis oceanus, J. Bacteriol. 94:422–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Repaske, R., 1956, Lysis of gram-negative bacteria by lysozyme, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 22:189–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Reusch, Jr., V. M., and Burger, M. M., 1973, The bacterial mesosome, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 300:79–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Salton, M. R. J., 1956, Studies of the bacterial cell wall. V. The action of lysozyme on cell walls of some lysozyme-sensitive bacteria, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 22:495–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Salton, M. R. J., 1958, The lysis of microorganisms by lysozyme and related enzymes, J. Gen. Microbiol. 18:481–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Salton, M. R. J., 1960, Surface layers of the bacterial cell, in: The Bacteria, Vol. 1 (I. C. Gunsalus and R. Y. Stanier, eds.), pp. 97–151, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Salton, M. R. J., 1961, The anatomy of the bacterial surface, Bacteriol. Rev. 25:77–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Salton, M. R. J., 1964, The Bacterial Cell Wall, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  112. Salton, M. R. J., 1967a, Isolation and characterization of bacterial membranes, Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 29:764–781.Google Scholar
  113. Salton, M. R. J., 1967a, Structure and composition of bacterial membranes, Protides Biol. Fluids 15:279–288.Google Scholar
  114. Salton, M. R. J., 1967c, Structure and function of bacterial cell membranes, Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 21:417–442.Google Scholar
  115. Salton, M. R. J., 1911a, The bacterial membrane, in: Biomembranes, Vol. 1 (L. A. Manson, ed.), pp. 1–65, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Salton, M. R. J., 1971a, Bacterial membranes, CRC Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 1:161–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Salton, M. R. J., 1974a, Isolation of cell walls from gram-positive bacteria, in: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 31 (S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, eds.), pp. 653–667, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Salton, M. R. J., 1914b, Membrane associated enzymes in bacteria, in: Advances in Microbial Physiol., Vol. 11 (A. H. Rose and D. W. Tempest, eds.), pp. 213–283, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  119. Salton, M. R. J., and Ehtisham-Ud-Din, A. F. M., 1965. The localization of cytochromes and carotenoids in isolated bacterial membranes and envelopes, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 43:255–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Salton, M. R. J., and Freer, J. H., 1965, Composition of the membranes isolated from several gram-positive bacteria, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 107:531–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Salton, M. R. J., and Home, R. W., 1951, Studies of the bacterial cell wall. II. Methods of preparation and some properties of cell walls, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 7:177–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Salton, M. R. J., and Nachbar, M. S., 1970, Structure and functional organization of Micrococcus lysodeikticus membrane, in: Autonomy and Biogenesis of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts (N. K. Boardman, A. W. Linnane, and R. M. Smillie, eds.), pp. 42–52, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  123. Salton, M. R. J., and Netschey, A., 1965, Physical chemistry of isolated bacterial membranes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 107:539–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Salton, M. R. J., and Pavlik, J. G., 1960, Studies of the bacterial cell wall. VI. Wall composition and sensitivity to lysozyme, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 39:398–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Salton, M. R. J., and Schmitt, M. D., 1967, Effects of diphenylamine on carotenoids and menaquinones in bacterial membranes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 135:196–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Salton, M. R. J., and Schor, M. T., 1972, Subunit structure and properties of two forms of adenosine triphosphatase released from Micrococcus lysodeikticus membranes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49:350–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Salton, M. R. J., Schmitt, M. D., and Trefts, P. E., 1967, Fractionation of isolated bacterial membranes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 29:728–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Salton, M. R. J., Freer, J. H., and Ellar, D. J., 1968, Electron transport components localized in a lipid-depleted sheet isolated from Micrococcus lysodeikticus membranes by deoxycholate extraction, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 33:909–915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Schachman, H. K., Pardee, A. B., and Stanier, R. Y., 1952, Studies on the macromolecular organization of microbial cells, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 38:245–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Schindler, C. A., and Schuhardt, V. T., 1964, Lysostaphin: A new bacteriolytic agent for the Staphylococcus,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51:414–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Schlessinger, D., Marchesi, V. T., and Kwan, B. C. K., 1965, Binding of ribosomes to cytoplasmic reticulum of Bacillus megaterium, J. Bacteriol. 90:456–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Schnaitman, C. A., 1970, Protein composition of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli, J. Bacteriol. 104:890–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Schnaitman, C. A., 1971, Solubilization of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli by Triton X-100, J. Bacteriol. 108:545–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Schnaitman, C. A., 1973, Outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli. II. Heterogeneity of major outer membrane polypeptides, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 157:553–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Schnaitman, C, and Greenawalt, J. W., 1966, Intracytoplasmic membranes in Escherichia coli,J. Bacteriol. 92:780–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Schuhardt, V. T., and Klesius, P. H., 1968, Osmotic fragility and viability of lysostaphininduced staphylococcal spheroplasts, J. Bacteriol. 96:734–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Steck, T. L., 1972, Membrane isolation, in: Membrane Molecular Biology (C. F. Fox and A. D. Keith, eds.), pp. 76–114, Sinauer Associates, Stamford, Conn.Google Scholar
  138. Stanier, R. Y., 1970, Some aspects of the biology of cells and their possible evolutionary significance, in : Organization and Control in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (H. P. Charles and B. C. J. G. Knight, eds.), pp. 1–38, Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  139. Takacs, B. J., and Holt, S. C, 1971, Thiocapsa floridana; a cytological, physical and chemical characterization. II. Physical characteristics of isolated and reconstituted chromatophores, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 233:278–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Theodore, T. S., Popkin, T. J., and Cole, R. M., 1971, The separation and isolation of plasma membranes and mesosomal vesicles from Staphylococcus aureus, Prep. Biochem. 1:233–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Theodore, T. S., Cole, R. M., and Huff, E., 1974, Localization of glycerol phosphate in mesosomal vesicles of Staphylococcus aureus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 59:215–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Tillack, T. W., Carter, R., and Razin, S., 1970, Native and reformed Mycoplasma laidlawii membranes compared by freeze-etching, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 219:123–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tremblay, G. Y., Daniels, M. J., and Schaechter, M., 1969, Isolation of a cell membrane-DNA-nascent RNA complex from bacteria, J. Mol. Biol. 40:65–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. van Iterson, W., 1965, Symposium on the fine structure and replication of bacteria and their parts. II. Bacterial cytoplasm, Bacteriol. Rev. 29:299–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Vorbeck, M. L., and Marinetti, G. V., 1965, Intracellular distribution and characterization of the lipids of Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 9790), Biochemistry 4:296–305.Google Scholar
  146. Wallach, D. F. H., 1967, Isolation of plasma membranes of animal cells, in: The Specificity of Cell Surfaces (B. D. Davis and L. Warren, eds.), pp. 129–163, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  147. Ward, J. B., and Perkins, H. R., 1968, The chemical composition of the membranes of protoplasts and L-forms of Staphylococcus aureus, Biochem. J. 106:391–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Watson, S. W., and Remsen, C. C., 1970, Cell envelope of Nitrosocystis oceanus,J. Ultrastruct. Res. 33:148–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Weibull, C, 1953a, The isolation of protoplasts from Bacillus megaterium by controlled treatment with lysozyme, J. Bacteriol. 66:688–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Weibull, C, 1953a, Characterization of the protoplasmic constituents of Bacillus megaterium, J. Bacteriol. 66:696–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Weigand, R. A., Holt, S. C., Shively, J. M., Decker, G. L., and Greenawalt, J. W., 1973, Ultrastructural properties of the extra membranes of Escherichia coli 0111a as revealed by freeze-fracturing and negative-staining techniques, J. Bacteriol. 113:433–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. White, D. A., Albright, F. R., Lennarz, W. J., and Schnaitman, C. A., 1971, Distribution of phospholipid-synthesizing enzymes in the wall and membrane subfractions of the envelope of Escherichia coli,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 249:636–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Wolf-Watz, H., Normark, S., and Bloom, G. D., 1973, Rapid method for isolation of large quantities of outer membrane from Escherichia coli K-12 and its application to the study of envelope mutants, J. Bacteriol. 115:1191–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Yem, D. W., and Wu, H. C, 1975, Purification properties and function of β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase from Escherichia coli K-12, Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. abst. K114.Google Scholar
  155. Young, F. E., 1966, Fractionation and partial characterization of the products on autolysis of cell walls of Bacillus subtilis,J. Bacteriol. 92:839–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milton R. J. Salton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations