Historical Controls and Modern Survival Analysis

  • Niels Keiding


Comparison of observed mortality with ‘known’, ‘background’, or ‘standard’ rates has taken place for several hundred years. With the developments of regression models for survival data, an increasing interest has arisen in individualizing the standardisation using covariates of each individual. Also, account sometimes needs to be taken of random variation in the standard group.


Liver Transplantation Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Historical Control Prognostic Index Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Patient 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels Keiding
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen NDenmark

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