Latent Trait Models with Indicators of Mixed Measurement Level

  • Gerhard Arminger
  • Ulrich Küsters


In this chapter we deal with the formulation and estimation of simultaneous equation models in metric latent endogenous variables that are connected to observed variables of any measurement level. The literature on this topic has focused on simultaneous equation models with metric (cf. Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1984) and ordinal indicators (Muthén, 1984). The use of ordinal indicators is based on an normal theory threshold concept implying an ordinal probit model. Concepts based on normal distribution theory are given up when qualitative variables are used as indicators for a latent metric variable (cf. the multinomial logit latent trait model of Bock, 1972).


Latent Trait Marginal Likelihood Multiple Indicator Conditional Density Royal Statistical Society 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Arminger
    • 1
  • Ulrich Küsters
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of WuppertalWuppertal 1Federal Republic of Germany

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